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Lecture 10

Lecture 10

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Lecture 10 Assignment-Textbook Ch. 22 (Reproductive System)
1
22.1 Introduction1. General functions of the male and female reproductive systems include __________. (p. 831)
a. producing sex cellsb. nurturing sex cellsc. transporting sex cells to sites of fertilizationd. secreting hormonese. all of the above.
22.2 Organs of the Male Reproductive System5. Describe the descent of the testes. (p. 833)
One to two months before birth, secreted testosterone signals the testes to descend. The gubernaculum aids inthe descent by guiding the testes through the inguinal canal, and into the scrotum. The developing vas deferenssuspends the testes in the scrotum.
6. Define
cryptorchidism.
(p. 835)
 
A
 
condition in which the testes do not descend.
 
Untreated, this condition will cause infertility
12. Describe the composition of semen. (p. 841)
The fluid conveyed by the male urethra to the outside as a result of sexual stimulation. It consists of sperm cellsfrom the testes and secretions from the seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral glands
13. Define
capacitation.
(p. 841)
The ability of sperm cells to fertilize an egg cell by changes that weaken the acrosomal membrane
14. Explain the mechanism that produces an erection of the penis. (p. 844)
During sexual stimulation the smooth muscles become relaxed. At the same time, parasympathetic nerve impulsespass from the sacral portion of the spinal cord to the arteries leading into the penis, causing them to dilate. Thesesame impulses also stimulate the veins leading away from the penis to constrict. Because of this, arterial bloodunder relatively high pressure enters the vascular space, and the flow of venous blood away is reduced. Thus,blood accumulates in the erectile tissues, and the penis swells, elongates, and becomes erect.
15. Define
orgasm
. (p, 844)
The culmination of stimulation of the sensory nerve fibers in the clitoris that causes the pleasurable sense of physiological and psychological release. In the male, it is also followed with ejaculation.
16. Distinguish between emission and ejaculation. (p. 844)
 
Emission is the movement of sperm cells from the testes and secretions from the prostate gland andseminal vesicles into the urethra, where they are mixed to form semen.
 
Ejaculation is the forcing of the semen through the urethra to the outside.
22.3 Hormonal Control of Male Reproductive Functions18. Describe the role of GnRH in the control of male reproductive functions. (p. 845)
In response to the release of GnRH (
gonadotropin releasing hormone
), the anterior pituitary releases luteinizinghormone (LH), which is called interstitial cell-stimulating hormone (ICSH) in the male, and follicle-stimulatinghormone (FSH). The ICSH promotes the development of the interstitial cells that secrete male hormones. FSHcauses the supporting cells of the germinal epithelium to respond to the effects of the male sex hormonetestosterone. Then, in the presence of FSH and testosterone, these supporting cells stimulate the spermatogeniccells to undergo spermatogenesis, producing sperm cells.
19. Distinguish between androgen and testosterone. (p. 845)
 
Lecture 10 Assignment-Textbook Ch. 22 (Reproductive System)
2
The collection of male sex hormones :androgens.Testosterone: a specific androgen.
20. Define
 puberty 
. (p. 846)
The phase and development in which androgen production increases rapidly and the male becomes reproductivelyfunctional
21. Discuss the actions of testosterone. (p. 846)
It stimulates enlargement of the testes and accessory organs of the reproductive system. It is responsible for malesecondary sex characteristics including:
 
increased body hair growth,
 
enlargement of the larynx and thickening of the vocal cords,
 
thickening of the skin,
 
increased muscle growth, and
 
thickening and strengthening of the bones.
22. List several male secondary sex characteristics. (p. 846)
 
Increased growth of body hair, particularly on the face, chest, axillary region, and pubic region, butsometimes accompanied by decreased growth of hair on the scalp.
 
Enlargement of the larynx and thickening of the vocal folds, accompanied by the development of a lower-pitched voice.
 
Thickening of skin.
 
Increased muscular growth accompanied by a development of broader shoulders and a relatively narrowwaist.
 
Thickening and strengthening of bones.
23. Explain the regulation of testosterone concentration. (p. 846)
Testosterone
 
is regulated by a negative feedback system that is responsive to blood concentration levels. As theconcentration levels increase, the hypothalamus inhibits GnRH release. If the blood concentration levels drop, thehypothalamus releases more GnRH.
22.4 Organs of the Female Reproductive System25. Describe how the ovaries are held in position. (p. 847)
By several ligaments:
 
The broad ligament is attached to the ovary, uterine tube, and uterus.
 
The suspensory ligament is attached to the upper end, and the
 
ovarian ligament arises from the broad ligament and attaches to the lower end of the ovary.
31. Define
ovulation
. (p. 851)
The process by which a secondary oocyte is released from its follicle.
32. Define
vestibule
. (p. 856)
A space found between the labia minora and contains the urethral and vaginal openings.
33. Describe the process of an erection in the female reproductive organs. (p. 856)
During sexual stimulation, parasympathetic nerve impulses cause dilation of the arteries associated with theerectile tissues found in the clitoris and vaginal entrance. This causes the tissues to swell and at the same time, thevagina expands and elongates. The vestibular glands begin to secrete mucous into the vestibule when stimulationis sufficient.
22.5 Hormonal Control of Female Reproductive Functions

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