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Lecture 12

Lecture 12

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Lecture 12 Assignment-Textbook Chapter 23 (Pregnancy, Growthand Development)
1
23.1 Introduction1.
Growth
is an increase in the size of the individual, whereas
development
is the continuous process by whichan individual changes from one phase to another. (p. 876)2.
Prenatal
is the period of development from fertilization to birth, whereas
postnatal
is the period of development from birth to death. (p. 876)23.2 Pregnancy3. Define
 pregnancy 
. (p. 876)
It is the presence of a developing offspring in the uterus. Pregnancy consists of 3 periods called trimesters, eachabout 3 months long.
4. Describe how sperm cells move within the female reproductive tract. (p. 876)
A sperm cell moves, by its tail lashing and muscular contraction in the female reproductive tract, into the uterinetube.
5. Summarize the events occurring after the sperm cell head enters the oocyte’s cytoplasm. (p. 878)
 
 
The sperm cell invades the follicular cells and penetrates the zona pellucida with the help of an enzyme(hyaluronidase), released by the acrosome of the sperm.
 
It then passes through the egg cell membrane into the cytoplasm. During this process, the sperm cell losesits tail, and the nucleus in its head swells.
 
The egg cell then divides unequally to form a relatively large cell and a tiny second polar body, which isexpelled later.
 
The nuclei of the egg cell and sperm cell come together in the center of the larger cell.
 
Their nucleus membranes disappear and their chromosomes combine, thus completing the process of fertilization.
23.3 Prenatal Period10. List the functions of hCG. (p. 882)
 
It prevents the termination of pregnancy.
 
It maintains the corpus luteum.
 
It stimulates the synthesis of other hormones from the developing placenta.
11. Describe the formation of the placenta, and explain its functions. (p. 882)
It is formed from the region of the chorion still in contact with the uterine wallFunction: to deliver nutrients to the developing fetus and carry wastes away from the developing fetus.
17. Distinguish between the chorion and amnion. (p. 888)chorion amnion
 
membrane that contains the chorionic villi andsurrounds the developing embryomembrane that develops around the embryo about thesecond week and is filled with amniotic fluid
 18. Explain the function of the amniotic fluid. (p. 888)
It provides a watery environment in which the embryo can move and grow freely without being compressed by
surrounding tissues. It also serves as protection from being jarred by the mother’s body movements.
 
19. Describe the formation of the umbilical cord. (p. 891)
Is formed as the amnion envelopes the tissues attached to the underside of the embryo. The umbilical cordincludes 2 arteries and a vein. It suspends the embryo in the amniotic cavity.
 
 
Lecture 12 Assignment-Textbook Chapter 23 (Pregnancy, Growthand Development)
2
21. Explain why the embryonic period is so critical. (p. 892)
During this time the embryo implants within the uterine wall, the main internal organs develop, and the majorexternal body structures appear.
23.4 Postnatal Period31. Distinguish between a newborn and an infant. (p. 904)newborn infant
 
A baby is considered a newborn from birth until the endof the fourth week after birth.A baby is considered an infant
 
from the end of thefourth week of age until age one year.
 32. Explain why a newborn's first breath must be particularly forceful. (p. 905)
The first breath must be powerful expand the lungs:a.
 
Surfactant reduces surface tension.b.
 
A variety of factors stimulate 1
st
breath.
33. List some of the factors that stimulate the first breath. (p. 905)
 
Increasing concentration of carbon dioxide
 
Decreasing pH
 
Low oxygen concentration
 
Drop in body temperature
 
Mechanical stimulation that occurs during and after birth
34. Explain why newborns tend to develop water and electrolyte imbalances. (p. 905)
Immature kidneys cannot concentrate urine very well. The newborn becomes dehydrated. Water and electrolyteimbalances may develop.
38. Define
adulthood 
. (p. 907)
It extends from adolescence to old age.
40. Define
senescence
. (p. 907)
The process of growing old
41. List some of the factors that promote senescence. (p. 907)
 
Disease processes that interfere with vital functions can accelerate senescence.
 
Diseases of any major body system can also accelerate senescence.
23.5 Aging42. Discuss the signs of passive and active aging and the physiological causes of these signs. (p. 909)Passive aging Active aging
 
Entails breakdown of structures and slowing or failureof functionsIn autoimmunity, the immune system attacks the bodyCT breaks down Apoptosis: form of programmed cell death. It occursthroughout life, shaping organsDNA errors accumulateLipid breakdown in aging membranes releaseslipofuscinFree radical damage escalates
43.
Life span
is the length of time a human can theoretically live, whereas
life expectancy
is the realisticprojection of how long an individual will live. (p. 911)

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