Lecture 12 Assignment-Textbook Chapter 23 (Pregnancy, Growthand Development)
is an increase in the size of the individual, whereas
is the continuous process by whichan individual changes from one phase to another. (p. 876)2.
is the period of development from fertilization to birth, whereas
is the period of development from birth to death. (p. 876)23.2 Pregnancy3. Define
. (p. 876)
It is the presence of a developing offspring in the uterus. Pregnancy consists of 3 periods called trimesters, eachabout 3 months long.
4. Describe how sperm cells move within the female reproductive tract. (p. 876)
A sperm cell moves, by its tail lashing and muscular contraction in the female reproductive tract, into the uterinetube.
5. Summarize the events occurring after the sperm cell head enters the oocyte’s cytoplasm. (p. 878)
The sperm cell invades the follicular cells and penetrates the zona pellucida with the help of an enzyme(hyaluronidase), released by the acrosome of the sperm.
It then passes through the egg cell membrane into the cytoplasm. During this process, the sperm cell losesits tail, and the nucleus in its head swells.
The egg cell then divides unequally to form a relatively large cell and a tiny second polar body, which isexpelled later.
The nuclei of the egg cell and sperm cell come together in the center of the larger cell.
Their nucleus membranes disappear and their chromosomes combine, thus completing the process of fertilization.
23.3 Prenatal Period10. List the functions of hCG. (p. 882)
It prevents the termination of pregnancy.
It maintains the corpus luteum.
It stimulates the synthesis of other hormones from the developing placenta.
11. Describe the formation of the placenta, and explain its functions. (p. 882)
It is formed from the region of the chorion still in contact with the uterine wallFunction: to deliver nutrients to the developing fetus and carry wastes away from the developing fetus.
17. Distinguish between the chorion and amnion. (p. 888)chorion amnion