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Lecture 4

Lecture 4

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Lecture 4 Assignment-Textbook Ch. 16 (Lymphatic System and Immunity)
1
16.3 Tissue Fluid and Lymph3. Distinguish between tissue fluid and lymph. (p. 619)
Lymph: tissue fluid that has entered into a lymphatic capillary.
4. Describe the primary functions of lymph. (p. 620)
Primary functions:
 
Returns to the bloodstream most of the small proteins that blood capillaries filtered.
 
Transports foreign particles, i.e. bacteria, viruses, to lymph nodes
16.4 Lymph Movement5. Explain why physical exercise promotes lymphatic circulation. (p. 621)
 
Contracting skeletal muscles compress lymphatic vessels. This squeezing action moves the lymph inside a vessel,but because lymphatic vessels have valves that prevent backflow, the lymph can move only toward a collectingduct.
 
 
Breathing aids lymph circulation by creating a relatively low pressure in the thorax during inhalation.
 6. Explain how a lymphatic obstruction leads to edema. (p. 621)
The continuous movement of fluid from interstitial spaces into blood capillaries and lymphatic capillaries stabilizes the volume of fluid in these spaces. Conditions that interfere with lymph movement cause tissue fluid to accumulate in interstitial fluid, producingedema.
9. Explain the functions of a lymph node. (p. 623)
Lymph nodes filter potentially harmful foreign particles from the lymph before it is returned to the bloodstream.
 
Lymph nodes are centers for the production of lymphocytes that act against foreign particlesThey contain macrophages that remove foreign particles from lymph
16.6 Thymus and Spleen10. Indicate the locations of the thymus and spleen. (p. 623)
Thymus:
 
In the mediastinum
 
anterior to the aortic arch
 
Posterior to the upper part of the body of the sternum
 
Extends from the root of the neck to the pericardium.Spleen
 
the upper left portion of the abdominal cavity
 
 just inferior to the diaphragm,
 
posterior and lateral to the stomach.
11. Compare and contrast the functions of the thymus and spleen. (p. 623)
 
Thymus
soft, bilobed organ within the mediastinum.
it slowly shrinks after puberty.
its composed of lymphatic tissue subdivided into lobules
lobules conatin lymphocytes
T lymphocytes leave the thymus and provide immunity
secretes thymosins, which stimulate maturation of T lymphocytesSpleen
upper left portion of the abdominal cavity
resembles a large lymph node encapsulated and subdivided into lobules by VT
spaces in splenic lobules are filled with blood
filters foreign particles and damaged RBCs from the blood, contains many macrophages and lymphocytes
 
Lecture 4 Assignment-Textbook Ch. 16 (Lymphatic System and Immunity)
2
16.7 Body Defenses Against Infection12. Defense mechanisms that prevent the entry of many types of pathogens and destroy them if they enter provide
innate
 (nonspecific) defense. Mechanisms that are very precise, targeting specific pathogens provide
adaptive
(specific) defense. (p. 626)16.8 Innate (Nonspecific) Defenses13. Define
species resistance
. (p. 626)
Each species is resistant to certain diseases that may affect other species but is susceptible to disease other species may resist.
14. Identify the barriers that provide the
body’s first line of defense against infectious agents. (p. 626)
 
Mechanical barriers: skin, hair, mucous membranes
15. Describe how enzymatic actions function as defense mechanisms against pathogens. (p. 626)
Enzymes provide a chemical barrier to pathogens.a.
 
By splitting components of the pathogenb.
 
decreasing the pH
19. Identify the major phagocytic cells in the blood and other tissues. (p. 627)
The most active phagocytic cells of the blood are neutrophils and monocytes. Chemicals released from injured tissues attract thesecells. Neutrophils engulf and digest smaller particles; monocytes phagocytize larger ones. Macrophages are fixed phagocytic cellsfound in lymph nodes, spleen, liver, and lungs. This constitutes reticuloendothelial tissue.
20. List possible causes of fever, and explain the benefits of fever. (p. 628)
Viral or bacterial infection stimulates certain lymphocytes to secrete IL-1, which temporarily raises body temperature.
Physical Factors Chemical factors
 
Heat/UV light Acids/basesElevated body temperature and the resulting decrease in blood iron level and increased phagocytic activity hamper infection.
16.9 Adaptive (Specific) Defenses, or Immunity21. Distinguish between an antigen and a hapten. (p. 628)
 
Antigen is a foreign substance, such as a protein, polysaccharide or a glycolipid, to which lymphocytes respond.
 
A hapten are small molecules that can combine with larger ones, becoming antigenic.
22. Review the origin of T cells and B cells. (p. 628)
 
T cells originate in the thymus.
 
B cells are those processed in another part of the body, i.e. the fetal liver.
25. Define
cytokine
. (p. 630)
Type of protein secreted by a T lymphocyte that attacks viruses, virally infected cells, and cancer cells
28. Explain the function of plasma cells. (p. 632)
Type of antibody-producing cell that forms when activated B cells proliferate
31. Match the types of antibodies with their function and/or where each is found. (p. 635)
1. Associated with allergic reactions
IgE2. Important in B cell activation, on surfaces of most B cells
IgD3. Activates complement, anti-A and anti-B in blood
IgM4. Effective against bacteria, viruses, toxins in plasma and tissue fluids
IgG5. In exocrine secretions, including breast milk
IgA
 
Lecture 4 Assignment-Textbook Ch. 16 (Lymphatic System and Immunity)
3
34. Contrast a primary and a secondary immune response. (p. 635)35. Contrast active and passive immunity. (p. 638)36. Define
vaccine
. (p. 638)
Preparation that includes antigens used to stimulate an immune response to prevent an infectious disease
37. Explain how a vaccine produces its effect. (p. 638)
A vaccine contains bacteria or viruses that have been killed or weakened so they cannot cause a serious infection; or it may contain atoxin of an infectious organism that has been chemically altered to destroy its toxic effects. The antigens present still retain thecharacteristics needed to simulate a primary immune response.
38. Describe how a fetus may obtain antibodies from maternal blood. (p. 638)
Receptor-mediated endocytosis utilizing receptor sites on cells of the fetal yolk sac transfers IgG molecules to the fetus.
39. Explain the relationship between an allergic reaction and an immune response. (p. 639)
Allergic or hypersensitivity reactions are excessive misdirected immune responses that may change tissues.
40. Distinguish between an antigen and an allergen. (p. 639)Antigen Allergen
 
Substance that stimulate cells to produce antibodies Foreign substance capable of stimulating an allergic reaction
41. Describe how an immediate-reaction allergic response may occur. (p. 639)
Occurs within minutes after contact. Persons with this type of allergy have inherited the tendency to overproduce IgE antibodies inresponse to certain antigens
42. List the major events leading to a delayed-reaction allergic response. (p. 641)
It results from repeated exposure of the skin to certain chemical substances. As a consequence of these repeated contacts, theforeign substance and a large number of T cells collect in the skin and eventually activate the T cells. Their actions and the actions of macrophages they attract cause the release of various chemical factors. This causes eruptions and inflammation of the skin. It iscalled delayed
 
since it takes about forty-eight hours to occur.
43. Explain the relationship between tissue rejection and an immune response. (p. 641)
A transplant recipient’s immune system may react against the donated tissue in a tissue rejection reaction.
 
 
Primary immune response
B cells or T cells first encountering an antigen for which they are specialized toreact constitutes a p.i.r.Secondary immune response
occurs rapidly as memory cells respond to subsequent exposure to an antigenActive immunity
a person who encounters a pathogen and has a primary immune responsedevelops natarullay a.i.Passive Immunity
when antinodies pass through a placental membrane from a pregnant woman toher fetus, the fetus develops naturally acquired p.i.

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