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Table Of Contents

1 Human behaviour and safety
Definition of ‘behaviour’
The study of human behaviour
Cognitive psychology
Complexity of human behaviour
Factors affecting human behaviour
Elements and functions of human behaviour
Attitude
Motivation
Perception
Memory
Personality
Ancestry and social background
Experience, intelligence, education and training
Attitudes and behaviour
Approaches to change
The human factors issues
Behavioural safety – what does it mean?
Perception of risk and its influence on risk-taking behaviour
Accident causation
Principal behavioural causes of accidents
Fault tree analysis
Pre-accident and post-accident strategies
Accident proneness
Unsafe behaviour
2 Human sensory and perceptual processes
Human sensory receptors
Sensory perception and messages
Perceptual processes
The process of perception of danger
Information processing
Sensory defects
Basic screening techniques
Perception and the limitations of human performance
Conclusions
Key points
3 Organizations and groups
Organization theory
Features of organizations
The survival of the organization
Basic organizational structures
Formal and informal groups within an organization
Work groups
Group dynamics
Group behaviour
Vulnerable groups
Leadership as a feature of organizations
Classical organization theory
Management style
The autocrat and the democrat
Peer group pressures and norms
Types of organizational communication
Attitudes to safety and risk management
Criteria for risk acceptability (tolerability)
Organizational safety culture
Health and safety organization
Performance monitoring
Monitoring performance
Corporate responsibility for safety
The role of the supervisor
4 People factors
What are human factors?
The appropriate safety climate
The individual differences in people
Human limitations
Degradation of human performance
The relevance of human factors within the sociotechnical system
Individual decision-making processes
Individual change
Human reliability and human reliability assessment
The human causes of accidents
The cause–accident–result sequence
Human capability and safety – The legal situation
Human capability and risk assessment
5 Perception of risk and human error
Perception of risk
Perceptual set
Perceptual sensitization and defence
Perception and sensory inputs
Filtering and selectivity of perception
Optimum bias
Risk compensation (homeostasis)
Cultural aspects of risk
Social amplification of risk
Communication of risk
Risk perception and communication (HSE)
Perceptual expectancy and stereotyping
Skill-, rule- and knowledge-based behaviour
Individual behaviour in the face of danger
Human error
Classification of human error
Employee selection processes
Use of system responses to help prevent human error
A more simplistic approach to human error
Contribution of human error to major catastrophes
6 Organizational control and human reliability
The organizational environment
Organizational factors
Safety organization
Organizational and individual goals
Integration of organizational goals with those of the individual
Systems organization and reliability
Types of organization
Health and safety committees
Health and Safety (Consultation with Employees) Regulations 1996
Employment Rights Act 1996
Patterns of employment
Home working
7 Improving human reliability
The significance of personal factors
Human reliability studies
Modelling approaches
Analytical techniques
Technique for human error rate probability (THERP)
The Hawthorne experiments (Social Man)
Stimulus and programmed response
Cognitive and learning styles and problem-solving
Human reliability modelling
Interpersonal relationship studies
Motivation and reinforcement – Workplace incentive schemes
Reward schemes
System design and organization of work
Performance monitoring and auditing
Job satisfaction and appraisal schemes
Job satisfaction and management style
Job satisfaction and self-actualization
Job safety standards
Job safety analysis
The benefits of improving human reliability
Conclusion
8 Ergonomic principles
What is ergonomics?
The scope of ergonomics
Human engineering
Areas of ergonomic study
The man–machine interface
The team approach to ergonomic studies
The employee and work
Environmental factors
Principal areas of ergonomic study
Design ergonomics
Principles of interface design
Interface design audit
People and machines
Prescribed and reportable diseases and conditions
Display screen equipment – The risks
Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment) Regulations 1992
Display screen equipment workstation risk assessment
Software ergonomics
Work conditions, ergonomics and health
9 Ergonomics and human reliability
Ergonomically designed interfaces and control systems
Classical error and systems ergonomics
Physical stressors and human reliability
Fatigue and stress
Manual handling
Safe manual handling
Manual handling risk assessment
Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992
Performance shaping factors
10 Principles of communication
What is communication?
The purpose of communication
The communication process
Forms of communication
Communication within organizations
Functions of communication
The direction of communication
The communications gap
The provision of information
Communication on health and safety issues
Safety propaganda as a form of communication
Communications failure
11 Verbal and nonverbal communication
Verbal communication
The art of plain talk
Barriers to verbal communication
Listening skills
Questioning techniques
Verbal communication on health and safety issues
Meetings
Nonverbal communication
12 Written communication
Writing style
Sentence construction
Grammar
Choice, economy and simplicity of words
Importance of active words
Structure and layout of written documents
The preparation of reports
Other forms of written communication
Use of information technology
Safety signs
13 Interpersonal skills
Important interpersonal skills
Interpersonal relationships
Theories of interpersonal relationships
Communication and interpersonal skills
Assessing and controlling conflict
Conflict resolution training
The relationship between skills and accidents
14 Systematic training
Education and training
Systematic training
Training objectives
Health and safety training objectives
The training process – Systematic training
The learning method
Health and safety training and education
Specific areas of training
Training methods and techniques
The training process: A model for health and safety
15 Presentation skills
The purpose of a presentation
Good communication
Planning the presentation
Safety culture
Establishing a safety culture
Building and developing a safety culture
Developing a safety culture
A safety culture model
The role of senior management
Measurement techniques
Questionnaire techniques
Interviews and workshops
Factors that promote a negative health and safety culture
17 Change and change management
What is change?
Change agents
Multipurpose change agents
Change as the frequent outcome of safety monitoring
Change management
Planning change
Organizational challenges
Principles of change management
Leadership
A step-by-step approach
Implementing change
The value and use of feedback
Problems and pitfalls: Barriers to change
Suggestion schemes
18 Stress and stress management
What is stress?
The autonomic system
The General Adaptation Syndrome
The evidence of stress
Ill-health effects associated with stress
Classification of stressors
Main sources of work stress
Bullying and harassment at work
Models of stress at work
Personality and stress
Women at work – Stress factors
Responses to stress
The stages of the stress response
Stress indicators
The effects of stress on job performance
Anxiety and depression
Stress and atypical workers
Violence at work
Risk assessment – Factors for consideration
Prevention and control strategies
Work-related violence
Occupational health initiatives
Principal aspects of stress management
Stress management action plans
Stress at work and the civil law
Stress at work and the criminal law
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Human Factors & Behavioural Safety

Human Factors & Behavioural Safety

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Published by Carlos Elias Bedoya

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Published by: Carlos Elias Bedoya on Oct 15, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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07/04/2013

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