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Transactions_Vol_IV

Transactions_Vol_IV

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Flow and Level measurement studies Uploaded by Pradeeban on for Vimalraj,Thanks a lot Vimal
Flow and Level measurement studies Uploaded by Pradeeban on for Vimalraj,Thanks a lot Vimal

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05/09/2014

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04
Volume 4
TRANSACTIONS

\u2022The Flow Pioneers
\u2022Flow Sensor Selection
\u2022Accuracy vs. Repeatability

Figure 1-3: Faraday's Law is the Basis of the Magnetic Flowmeter

Turbulent\ue001
Velocity\ue001
Flow\ue001

Profile
or
E
E
D
V

Laminar\ue001
Velocity\ue001
Flow\ue001

Profile
Magnetic\ue001
Coil
Figure 2-8: Proprietary Elements For Difficult Fluids
A) Segmental Wedge
Wedge Flow\ue001
Element
D
H
B) V-Cone
HL
08
TABLE OF CONTENTS
VOLUME 4\u2014FLOW & LEVEL MEASUREMENT
Section
Topics Covered
Page

\u2022Primary Element Options
\u2022Pitot Tubes
\u2022Variable Area Flowmeters

16

\u2022Positive Displacement Flowmeters
\u2022Turbine Flowmeters
\u2022Other Rotary Flowmeters

34

\u2022Magnetic Flowmeters
\u2022Vortex Flowmeters
\u2022Ultrasonic Flowmeters

46

\u2022Coriolis Mass Flowmeters
\u2022Thermal Mass Flowmeters
\u2022Hot-Wire Anemometers

58
Electronic Flowmeters
4
Mechanical Flowmeters
3
Differential Pressure Flowmeters
2
A Flow Measurement Orientation
1\ue000
Mass Flowmeters
5
Figure 3-7:
Calibrated\ue000
Volume
1stD e te c to r
2nd Detector
Flow TubeFlow
Displacer
Figure 4-6:
\ue0011\ue000
10\ue000
100\ue000
1,000\ue000
104\ue000
105\ue000
106\ue000
107\ue000
\ue001
1.00\ue001
0.95\ue001
0.90\ue001
0.85\ue001
0.80\ue001
0.75\ue001
0.70
Re
K
K = 1 Asymptote\ue001
For Flat Profile
K = 0.75 For Laminar Flow
Figure 5-5:
B)
A)
C)
SupportFlanges
Mass Flowtube\ue000
Enclosure
Pipe/Flowtube Junction

NOTE:\ue000
Distance Between\ue000
Pipe/Flowtube\ue000
Junction and \ue000
Support\ue000
Must Not\ue000
Exceed 15 Inches\ue000
\ue000

Flow\ue000
Direction Arrow
Mass Tube Enclosure
Support\ue000
(Typical)
Flow\ue000
Direction\ue000
Arrow

NOTE: Distance Between\ue000
Pipe/Flowtube Junction and \ue000
Support Must Not \ue000
Exceed 15 Inches\ue000
\ue000

'U' Rest
'V' Rest
'V' Bolt\ue000
Clamp
Inverted Pipe\ue000
Hanger Clamp
'V' Block Clamp\ue000
(Can Be Inverted)
Click here to visit the OMEGA.COM website
TRANSACTIONS
Volume 4
05
Editorial 06
About OMEGA 07
REFERENCE SECTIONS
106 Information Resources
110 Glossary

\u2022Level Sensor Selection
\u2022Boiling & Cryogenic Fluids
\u2022Sludge, Foam, & Molten Metals

Figure 6-3:
Vertical
Sphere
Horizontal \ue000
Cylindrical
500
100 Volume %
100
50
Level %
Figure 7-3:
B)
A)Bimetallic\ue000
Temperature\ue000
Compensator
Low Pressure\ue000
Side
High Pressure\ue000
Side
Liquid\ue000
Fill
Range\ue000
Spring
Nozzle & Flapper
Feedback Bellows
Fulcrum & Seal
Force Bar
Low Pressure\ue000
Side
Liquid Filled\ue000
Diaphragm\ue000
Capsule
Output
High Pressure\ue000
Side
Pneumatic\ue000
Relay
Air\ue000
Supply
\ue000
72
VOLUME 4\u2014FLOW & LEVEL MEASUREMENT
Section
Topics Covered
Page

\u2022Dry & Wet Leg Designs
\u2022Bubbler Tubes
\u2022Floats & Displacers

76

\u2022Theory of Operation
\u2022Probe Designs
\u2022Installation Considerations

87

\u2022Radar & Microwave
\u2022Ultrasonic Level Gages
\u2022Nuclear Level Gages

93

\u2022Thermal Switches
\u2022Vibrating Switches
\u2022Optical Switches

102
Radiation-Based Level Instrumentation
9
RF/Capacitance Level Instrumentation
8
Pressure/Density Level Instrumentation
7
A Level Measurement Orientation
6
Specialty Level Switches
10
Figure 8-2:
A)
B)
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
-
++
++
++
++
++
++
++
++
++
++
++
++
++
++
--
--
--
--
A
A
D
Electron\ue000
Flow
Ammeter
Voltmeter
#1
Level
RF
#2
Kv
Kl
C=KA
D

C=Capacitance\ue000
K=Dieletric Constant\ue000
A=Area of Plates\ue000
D=Dist. Between Plates

Figure 9-6:
B)
A)
Reflection\ue000
Microwave\ue000
Detector
Microwave\ue000
Window
Microwave\ue000
Window
Microwave\ue000
Transmitter
Transmitted\ue000
Beam
Microwave\ue000
Receiver
Microwave\ue000
Window
Reflected\ue000
Beam
Absorbed\ue000
Beam
Figure 10-4:
Receiver
LED
Prism
Light\ue000
from\ue000
LED
Liquid Below the\ue000
Sensing Prism.
Liquid Immersing\ue000
the Sensing Prism.
LED
LED
Receiver
Prism
Light\ue000
Lost in\ue000
Liquid

ur interest in the measure- ment of air and water flow is timeless. Knowledge of

the direction and velocity of air flow was essential informa- tion for all ancient navigators, and the ability to measure water flow was necessary for the fair distribu- tion of water through the aque- ducts of such early communities as

the Sumerian cities of Ur, Kish, and Mari near the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers around 5,000 B.C. Even today, the distribution of water among the rice patties of Bali is the sacred duty of authorities designated the \u201cWater Priests.\u201d

Our understanding of the behavior
of liquids and gases (including hydro-

dynamics, pneumatics, aerodynam- ics) is based on the works of the ancient Greek scientists Aristotle and Archimedes. In the Aristotelian view, motion involves a medium that rushes in behind a body to prevent a vacuum. In the sixth century A.D., John Philoponos suggested that a body in motion acquired a property called impetus, and that the body came to

rest when its impetus died out.

In 1687, the English mathematician Sir Isaac Newton discovered the law of universal gravitation. The opera- tion of angular momentum-type mass flowmeters is based directly on Newton\u2019s second law of angular motion. In 1742, the French mathe- matician Rond d\u2019Alembert proved

that Newton\u2019s third law of motion applies not only to stationary bodies, but also to objects in motion.

The Flow Pioneers

A major milestone in the understand- ing of flow was reached in 1783 when the Swiss physicist Daniel Bernoulli published hisHydrodynamica. In it, he introduced the concept of the con- servation of energy for fluid flows. Bernoulli determined that an increase in the velocity of a flowing fluid increases its kinetic energy while decreasing its static energy. It is for this reason that a flow restriction causes an increase in the flowing velocity and also causes a drop in the static pressure of the flowing fluid.

The permanent pressure loss through a flowmeter is expressed either as a percentage of the total pressure drop or in units of velocity heads, calculated as V2/2g, where V is the flowing velocity and g is the gravitational acceleration (32.2 feet/second2or 9.8 meters/second2 at 60\u00b0 latitude). For example, if the velocity of a flowing fluid is 10 ft/s, the velocity head is 100/64.4 = 1.55 ft. If the fluid is water, the velocity head corresponds to 1.55 ft of water (or 0.67 psi). If the fluid is air, then the velocity head corresponds to the weight of a 1.55-ft column of air.

The permanent pressure loss through various flow elements can be expressed as a percentage of the total pressure drop (Figure 1-1), or it can be expressed in terms of veloc- ity heads. The permanent pressure loss through an orifice is four veloc- ity heads; through a vortex shedding sensor, it is two; through positive

08
Volume 4
TRANSACTIONS

The Flow Pioneers
Flow Sensor Selection
Accuracy vs. Repeatability

FLOW & LEVEL MEASUREMENT
A Flow Measurement Orientation
1
O
Figure 1-1: Pressure Loss-Venturi vs. Orifice
\ue001\ue0000.1\ue000
0.2\ue000 0.3\ue000
0.4\ue000
0.5\ue000
0.6\ue000 0.7\ue000
0.8\ue000
0.9\ue000
\ue001

90\ue001 80\ue001 70\ue001

60\ue001
50\ue001
40\ue001
30\ue001
20\ue001
10\ue000

\ue001Low Loss \ue001
Venturi
Long Form\ue001
Venturi
Standard\ue001
Venturi
ASME Flow\ue001
Nozzle
Orifice Plate
Recovery\u2014Pe
rcentofDiff
erential
Unrecovered
PressureLos
s\u2014Percentof
Differentia
l
Proprietary Flow Tube
Beta (Diameter) Ratio

10\ue001
20\ue001
30\ue001
40\ue001
50\ue001
60\ue001

70\ue001
80\ue001
90\ue000
\ue001
O
A Flow Measurement Orientation

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