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Thuyet minh 1

Thuyet minh 1



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Published by: api-3765772 on Oct 16, 2008
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Ch \u00acng I:
Gi\u00edi thi\u00d6u c\u00abng ngh\u00d6
a)T\u00e6ng qu\u00b8t v\u00d2 c\u00cau t\u00b9o v\u00b5 nguy\u00aan l\u00fd l\u00b5m vi\u00d6c c\u00f1a \u00bec quy

Trong th\u00f9c t\u00d5 hi\u00d6n nay ng\u00eai ta s\u00f6 d\u00f4ng c\u00b6 hai lo\u00b9i \u00bec quy ax\u00ddt v\u00b5 \u00bec quy ki\u00d2m nhng th\u00abng d\u00f4ng nh\u00cat t\u00f5 tr\u00edc \u00ae\u00d5n nay v\u00c9n l\u00b5 \u00bec quy ax\u00ddt v\u00d7 so v\u00edi \u00bec quy ki\u00d2m n\u00e3 c\u00e3 s\u00f8c \u00aei\u00d6n \u00ae\u00e9ng c\u00f1a m\u00e7i \u201c c\u00c6p b\u00b6n\u201d c\u00f9c cao h\u00acn , c\u00e3 \u00aei\u00d6n tr\u00eb trong nh\u00e1 h\u00acn m\u00c6c d\u00ef \u00bec quy ki\u00d2m c\u00e3 kh\u00b8 nhi\u00d2u u \u00aei\u00d3m v\u00b5 c\u00e3 tri\u00d3n v\u00e4ng t\u00e8t trong t\u00acng lai .

1.C\u00cau t\u00b9o c\u00f1a b\u00d7nh \u00bec quy ax\u00ddt

B\u00d7nh \u00bec quy ax\u00ddt g\u00e5m v\u00e1 b\u00d7nh c\u00e3 c\u00b8c ng\u00a8n ri\u00aang th- \u00eang l\u00b5 ba ho\u00c6c s\u00b8u ng\u00a8n tu\u00fa theo lo\u00b9i \u00bec quy 6V hay 12V . Trong m\u00e7i ng\u00a8n c\u00e3 \u00ae\u00c6t kh\u00e8i b\u00b6n c\u00f9c g\u00e5m ph\u00a9n ph\u00e8i b\u00b6n c\u00f9c d\u00acng v\u00b5 ph\u00a9n ph\u00e8i b\u00b6n c\u00f9c \u00a9m ng\u00a8n c\u00b8ch v\u00edi nhau b\u00bbng c\u00b8c t\u00cam ng\u00a8n . M\u00e7i ng\u00a8n nh v\u00cby \u00ae\u00eec coi l\u00b5 m\u00e9t \u00bec quy \u00ae\u00acn . C\u00b8c \u00bec quy \u00ae\u00acn n\u00e8i ti\u00d5p v\u00edi nhau b\u00bbng c\u00b8c c\u00c7u n\u00e8i v\u00b5 t\u00b9o th\u00b5nh b\u00d7nh \u00bec quy . Ng\u00a8n \u00ae\u00c7u v\u00b5 ng\u00a8n cu\u00e8i c\u00e3 \u00ae\u00c7u t\u00f9 do v\u00b5 \u00ae\u00eec l\u00b5m theo d\u00b9ng c\u00abn . M\u00c6t tr\u00aan c\u00e3 d\u00cau

( + ) ho\u00c6c (- ) t\u00b9o th\u00b5nh c\u00b8c \u00ae\u00c7u c\u00f9c cu\u00b6 \u00bec quy . Dung d\u00dech \u00aei\u00d6n ph\u00a9n ( dung d\u00dech ax\u00ddt sunfuric ) \u00ae\u00eec \u00ae\u00e6 v\u00b5o t\u00f5ng ng\u00a8n theo m\u00f8c quy \u00ae\u00denh . Th\u00eang ng\u00eai ta \u00ae\u00d3 ng\u00cbp qu\u00b8 c\u00b9nh tr\u00aan cu\u00b6 c\u00b8c b\u00b6n c\u00f9c kho\u00b6ng 10 \u2013 15 mm . \u00a7\u00d3 tr\u00b8nh h h\u00e1ng cho c\u00b8c t\u00cam ng\u00a8n v\u00b5 b\u00b6n c\u00f9c khi ki\u00d3m m\u00f8c dung d\u00dech trong m\u00e7i ng\u00a8n ng\u00eai ta th\u00eang \u00ae\u00c6t tr\u00aan m\u00e7i b\u00b6n c\u00f9c m\u00e9t t\u00cam b\u00b6o v\u00d6 b\u00bbng l\u00edi clovinhin ho\u00c6c vinhiplat . Tr\u00aan c\u00efng c\u00f1a m\u00e7i

ng\u00a8n c\u00e3 n\u00bep v\u00b5 \u00ae\u00d3 \u00ae\u00b6m b\u00b6o \u00ae\u00e9 k\u00ddn gi\u00f7a n\u00bep v\u00edi th\u00b5nh v\u00e1 b\u00d7nh ng\u00eai ta \u00ae\u00e6 m\u00e9t l\u00edp s\u00b8p ch\u00deu axit g\u00e5m kho\u00b6ng 75% nh\u00f9a \u00ae\u00eang v\u00b5 25% d\u00c7u m\u00b8y .

a)V\u00e1 b\u00d7nh:

V\u00e1 b\u00d7nh \u00bec quy hi\u00d6n nay \u00ae\u00eec ch\u00d5 t\u00b9o b\u00bbng c\u00b8c lo\u00b9i nh\u00f9a \u00aab\u00abn\u00ddt ho\u00c6c axphant\u00abp\u00d0c ho\u00c6c cao su nh\u00f9a c\u00f8ng . So v\u00edi nh\u00f9a axphant\u00acp\u00d0c th\u00d7 \u00aab\u00abnit c\u00e3 \u00ae\u00e9 b\u00d2n h\u00acn v\u00b5 kh\u00b6 n\u00a8ng ch\u00deu ax\u00ddt t\u00e8t h\u00acn nhi\u00d2u . \u00a7\u00d3 t\u00a8ng \u00ae\u00e9 b\u00d2n v\u00f7ng v\u00b5 kh\u00b6 n\u00a8ng ch\u00deu axit cho b\u00d7nh nh\u00f9a axphant\u00acp\u00d0c , khi ch\u00d5 ta\u00e4 ng\u00eai ta \u00d0p v\u00b5o b\u00aan trong b\u00d7nh m\u00e9t l\u00edp l\u00e3t ch\u00deu axit d\u00b5y 0,6 mm b\u00bbng p\u00abluclovinlim . Nh\u00ea l\u00edp n\u00b5y m\u00b5 tu\u00e6i th\u00e4 c\u00f1a v\u00e1 b\u00d7nh t\u00a8ng l\u00aan 2-3 l\u00c7n .

\u00a7\u00c6c \u00aei\u00d3m c\u00f1a v\u00e1 b\u00d7nh l\u00b5 ph\u00dda trong chia th\u00b5nh c\u00b8c v\u00b8ch ng\u00a8n ri\u00aang bi\u00d6t b\u00bbng nh\u00f7ng v\u00b8ch ng\u00a8n k\u00ddn v\u00b5 ch\u00bec . \u00eb \u00ae\u00b8y c\u00f1a m\u00e7i ng\u00a8n c\u00e3 4 s\u00e8ng \u00ae\u00ec kh\u00e8i b\u00b6n c\u00f9c t\u00b9o th\u00b5nh kho\u00b6ng tr\u00e8ng gi\u00f7a \u00ae\u00b8y b\u00d7nh v\u00b5 m\u00c6t d\u00e3i c\u00f1a kh\u00e8i b\u00b6n c\u00f9c . Nh\u00ea v\u00cby m\u00b5 tr\u00b8nh \u00ae\u00eec hi\u00d6n t\u00eeng ch\u00cbp m\u00b9ch gi\u00f7a c\u00b8c b\u00b6n c\u00f9c do ch\u00cat k\u00d5t t\u00f1a r\u00aci xu\u00e8ng \u00ae\u00b8y b\u00d7nh g\u00a9y n\u00aan . \u00eb m\u00e9t s\u00e8 b\u00d7nh \u00bec quy c\u00ec l\u00edn ng\u00dfi ta c\u00e3 th\u00d3 l\u00bep th\u00aam c\u00b8c quai s\u00bet v\u00b5o v\u00e1 b\u00d7nh \u00ae\u00d3 khi di chuy\u00d3n \u00ae\u00eec d\u00d4 d\u00b5ng h\u00acn .

b)B\u00b6n c\u00f9c , ph\u00a9n kh\u00e8i b\u00b6n c\u00f9c v\u00b5 kh\u00e8i b\u00b6n c\u00f9c :

B\u00b6n c\u00f9c g\u00e5nm c\u00e8t h\u00d7nh m\u00bet c\u00b8o , tr\u00aan \u00ae\u00e3 tr\u00b8t \u00ae\u00c7y ch\u00cat t\u00b8c d\u00f4ng . C\u00e8t \u00ae\u00f3c b\u00bbng h\u00eep kim ch\u00d7 -Stibi ( Sh ) (87- 95% +5-13% Sb). Stibi trong h\u00eep kim c\u00e3 t\u00b8c d\u00f4ng t\u00a8ng \u00ae\u00e9 c\u00f8ng v\u00f7ng v\u00b5 gi\u00b6m han g\u00d8 cho c\u00e8t . H\u00eep kim na\u00fa so v\u00edi ch\u00d7

Pb nguy\u00aan ch\u00cat c\u00e3 h\u00d6 s\u00e8 n\u00e6 d\u00b5i nh\u00e1 , nhi\u00d6t \u00ae\u00e9 n\u00e3ng ch\u00b6y
th\u00cap h\u00acn v\u00b5 \u00ae\u00c6c t\u00ddnh \u00ae\u00f3c t\u00e8t h\u00acn .

C\u00e8t \u00ae\u00d3 gi\u00f7a c\u00b8c ch\u00cat t\u00b8c d\u00f4ng v\u00b5 ph\u00a9n ph\u00e8i d\u00dfng \u00aei\u00d6n b\u00bbng kh\u00bep b\u00d2 m\u00c6t b\u00b6n c\u00f9c . \u00a7i\u00d2u n\u00b5y c\u00e3 \u00fd ngh\u00dca \u00ae\u00c6c bi\u00d6t quan tr\u00e4ng \u00ae\u00e8i v\u00edi c\u00b8c b\u00b6n c\u00f9c d\u00acng v\u00d7 \u00aei\u00d6n tr\u00eb c\u00f1a c\u00b8c ch\u00cat t\u00b8c d\u00f4ng ( oxit ch\u00d7 PbO2 ) l\u00edn g\u00cap 10.000 l\u00c7n \u00aei\u00d6n tr\u00eb c\u00f1a ch\u00d7 nguy\u00aan ch\u00cat . Do \u00ae\u00e3 c\u00b5ng t\u00a8ng chi\u00d2u d\u00c7y c\u00f1a c\u00e9t th\u00d7 \u00aei\u00d6n tr\u00eb trong \u00bec quy s\u00cf c\u00b5ng nh\u00e1 .

C\u00e8t c\u00e3 khung bao quanh , c\u00e3 v\u00cau \u00ae\u00d3 h\u00b5n n\u00e8i c\u00b8c b\u00b6n c\u00f9c th\u00b5nh ph\u00c7n ph\u00a9n kh\u00e8i b\u00b6n c\u00f9c v\u00b5 c\u00e3 hai ch\u00a9n \u00ae\u00d3 t\u00fa l\u00aan c\u00b8c s\u00e8ng \u00ae\u00ec \u00eb \u00ae\u00b8y b\u00d7nh \u00bec quy . Ch\u00a9n c\u00f1a c\u00b8c b\u00b6n c\u00f9c d\u00acng v\u00b5 \u00a9m ph\u00b6i \u00ae\u00eec ph\u00a9n b\u00e8 sao cho ph\u00a9n kh\u00e8i b\u00b6n c\u00f9c d\u00acng t\u00fa l\u00aan m\u00e9t \u00ae\u00abi s\u00e8ng \u00ae\u00ec so le c\u00dfn ph\u00a9n kh\u00e8i ph\u00a9n c\u00f9c \u00a9m t\u00fa l\u00aan \u00ae\u00abi s\u00e8ng \u00ae\u00ec so le kia . S\u00f9 ph\u00a9n b\u00e8 nh v\u00cby tr\u00b8nh \u00ae\u00eec hi\u00d6n t\u00eeng ch\u00cbp m\u00b9ch qua ph\u00c7n s\u00e8ng \u00ae\u00ec .

V\u00d7 \u00aei\u00d6n c\u00e8t c\u00f1a b\u00b6n c\u00f9c \u00a9m kh\u00abng ph\u00b6i l\u00b5 y\u00d5u t\u00e8 quy\u00d5t \u00ae\u00denh v\u00b6 l\u00b9i ch\u00f3ng c\u00f2ng \u00ddt b\u00de han g\u00d8 nrrn ng\u00eai ta th- \u00eang l\u00b5m m\u00e1ng h\u00acn b\u00b6n c\u00f9c d\u00acng . \u00a7\u00c6c bi\u00d6t l\u00b5 hai t\u00cam b\u00aan c\u00f1a ph\u00a9n kh\u00e8i b\u00b6n c\u00f9c \u00a9m l\u00b9i c\u00b5ng m\u00e1ng v\u00d7 ch\u00f3ng ch\u00d8 l\u00b5m vi\u00d6c c\u00e3 m\u00e9t ph\u00dda gi\u00b8p v\u00edi b\u00b6n c\u00f9c d\u00acng .

Ch\u00cat t\u00b8c d\u00f4ng \u00ae\u00eec ch\u00d5 t\u00b9o t\u00f5 b\u00e9t ch\u00d7 , dung d\u00dech axit sunfuric v\u00b5 kho\u00b6ng 3% ch\u00cat n\u00e6 nh mu\u00e8i c\u00f1a c\u00b8c axit h\u00f7u c\u00ac v\u00b5 nh\u00f7ng ch\u00cat h\u00f7u c\u00ac t\u00e6ng h\u00eep v.v.. \u00ae\u00e8i v\u00edi b\u00b6n c\u00f9c \u00a9m , c\u00dfn \u00ae\u00e8i v\u00edi b\u00b6n c\u00f9c d\u00acng th\u00d7 ch\u00cat t\u00b8c d\u00f4ng \u00ae\u00eec ch\u00d5 t\u00b9o t\u00f5 c\u00b8c \u00abxit ch\u00d7 Pb3O4 , PbO v\u00b5 dung d\u00dech axit sunf\u00f1ic . Ch\u00cat n\u00e6


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