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P. 1
Lo dien tro

Lo dien tro

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Published by api-3765772

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Published by: api-3765772 on Oct 16, 2008
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03/18/2014

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Ch\u00acng 1
t\u00e6ng quan v\u00d2 c\u00cau t\u00b9o v\u00b5 nguy\u00aan l\u00fd l\u00b5m vi\u00d6c c\u00f1a l\u00df \u00aei\u00d6n
I-Gi\u00edi thi\u00d6u chung v\u00d2 l\u00df \u00aei\u00d6n
1 - \u00a7\u00denh ngh\u00dca

L\u00df \u00aei\u00d6n l\u00b5 m\u00e9t thi\u00d5t b\u00de \u00aei\u00d6n bi\u00d5n \u00aei\u00d6n n\u00a8ng th\u00b5nh nhi\u00d6t n\u00a8ng d\u00efng trong c\u00b8c qu\u00b8 tr\u00d7nh c\u00abng ngh\u00d6 kh\u00b8c nhau nh nung ho\u00c6c n\u00cau luy\u00d6n c\u00b8c v\u00cbt li\u00d6u, c\u00b8c kim lo\u00b9i v\u00b5 c\u00b8c h\u00eep kim kh\u00b8c nhau v.v...

- L\u00df \u00aei\u00d6n \u00ae\u00eec s\u00f6 d\u00f4ng r\u00e9ng r\u00b7i trong c\u00b8c l\u00dcnh v\u00f9c k\u00fc thu\u00cbt :
+ S\u00b6n xu\u00cat th\u00d0p ch\u00cat l\u00eeng cao
+ S\u00b6n xu\u00cat c\u00b8c h\u00eep kim phe-r\u00ab
+ Nhi\u00d6t luy\u00d6n v\u00b5 ho\u00b8 nhi\u00d6t luy\u00d6n
+ Nung c\u00b8c v\u00cbt ph\u00c8m tr\u00edc khi c\u00b8n, r\u00ccn d\u00cbp, k\u00d0o s\u00eei
+ S\u00b6n xu\u00cat \u00ae\u00f3c v\u00b5 kim lo\u00b9i b\u00e9t

- Trong c\u00b8c l\u00dcnh v\u00f9c c\u00abng nghi\u00d6p kh\u00b8c :
+ Trong c\u00abng nghi\u00d6p nh\u00d1 v\u00b5 th\u00f9c ph\u00c8m, l\u00df \u00aei\u00d6n \u00ae\u00eec d\u00efng
\u00ae\u00d3 s\u00cat, m\u00b9 v\u00cbt ph\u00c8m v\u00b5 chu\u00c8n b\u00de th\u00f9c ph\u00c8m
+ Trong c\u00b8c l\u00dcnh v\u00f9c kh\u00b8c, l\u00df \u00aei\u00d6n \u00ae\u00eec d\u00efng \u00ae\u00d3 s\u00b6n xu\u00cat c\u00b8c
v\u00cbt ph\u00c8m thu\u00fb tinh, g\u00e8m s\u00f8, c\u00b8c lo\u00b9i v\u00cbt li\u00d6u ch\u00deu l\u00f6a v.v...

L\u00df \u00aei\u00d6n kh\u00abng nh\u00f7ng c\u00e3 m\u00c6t trong c\u00b8c ng\u00b5nh c\u00abng nghi\u00d6p m\u00b5 ng\u00b5y c\u00b5ng \u00ae\u00eec d\u00efng ph\u00e6 bi\u00d5n trong \u00ae\u00eai s\u00e8ng sinh ho\u00b9t h\u00b5ng ng\u00b5y c\u00f1a con ng\u00eai m\u00e9t c\u00b8ch phong ph\u00f3 v\u00b5 \u00aea d\u00b9ng : B\u00d5p \u00aei\u00d6n, n\u00e5i n\u00cau c\u00acm \u00aei\u00d6n, b\u00d7nh \u00aeun n\u00edc \u00aei\u00d6n, thi\u00d5t b\u00de nung r\u00ben, s\u00cay \u00aei\u00d6n v.v...

2 - \u00a6u \u00aei\u00d3m c\u00f1a l\u00df \u00aei\u00d6n so v\u00edi c\u00b8c l\u00df s\u00f6 d\u00f4ng nhi\u00aan li\u00d6u
L\u00df \u00aei\u00d6n so v\u00edi c\u00b8c l\u00df s\u00f6 d\u00f4ng nhi\u00aan li\u00d6u c\u00e3 nh\u00f7ng u \u00aei\u00d3m sau
:C\u00e3 kh\u00b6 n\u00a8ng t\u00b9o \u00ae\u00eec nhi\u00d6t \u00ae\u00e9 cao do mang n\u00a8ng l\u00eeng t\u00cbp trung
trong m\u00e9t th\u00d3 t\u00ddch nh\u00e1
Do n\u00a8ng l\u00eeng t\u00cbp trung cao n\u00aan l\u00df \u00aei\u00d6n c\u00e3 kh\u00b6 n\u00a8ng \u00ae\u00b6m b\u00b6o
t\u00e8c \u00ae\u00e9 nung l\u00edn v\u00b5 n\u00a8ng su\u00cat thi\u00d5t b\u00de cao

B\u00bbng c\u00b8ch ph\u00a9n b\u00e8 h\u00eep l\u00dd ngu\u00e5n nhi\u00d6t ph\u00b8t ra,l\u00df \u00aei\u00d6n c\u00e3 kh\u00b6 n\u00a8ng \u00ae\u00b6m b\u00b6o nung \u00ae\u00d2u v\u00b5 ch\u00ddnh x\u00b8c,d\u00d4 \u00aei\u00d2u ch\u00d8nh ch\u00d5 \u00ae\u00e9 \u00aei\u00d6n v\u00b5 nhi\u00d6t \u00ae\u00e9

L\u00df \u00aei\u00d6n k\u00ddn n\u00aan c\u00e3 kh\u00b6 n\u00a8ng nung trong ch\u00a9n kh\u00abng ho\u00c6c trong m\u00abi tr\u00eang c\u00e3 kh\u00dd b\u00b6o v\u00d6.C\u00b8c \u00aei\u00d2u ki\u00d6n tr\u00aan cho ph\u00d0p ti\u00d5n h\u00b5nh nung v\u00b5 luy\u00d6n kim lo\u00b9i v\u00b5 h\u00eep kim \u00ddt b\u00de ch\u00b8y ,kh\u00abng t\u00e8n k\u00d0m nhi\u00d2u

C\u00e3 kh\u00b6 n\u00a8ng c\u00ac kh\u00dd ho\u00b8 v\u00b5 t\u00f9 \u00ae\u00e9ng ho\u00b8 qu\u00b8 tr\u00d7nh ch\u00cat d\u00ec
nguy\u00aan li\u00d6u v\u00b5 v\u00cbn chuy\u00d4n v\u00cbt ph\u00c8m
\u00a7\u00b6m b\u00b6o \u00aei\u00d2u khi\u00d6n lao \u00ae\u00e9ng h\u00eep v\u00d6 sinh v\u00b5 kh\u00abng c\u00e3 ti\u00d5ng
\u00e5n,kh\u00e3i, \u00aei\u00d2u ki\u00d6n thao t\u00b8c t\u00e8t, thi\u00d5t b\u00de g\u00e4n nh\u00d1
3 - Nh\u00eec \u00aei\u00d3m c\u00f1a l\u00df \u00aei\u00d6n

N\u00a8ng l\u00eeng \u00aei\u00d6n t\u00acng \u00ae\u00e8i \u00ae\u00bet so v\u00edi d\u00c7u Mazuts v\u00b5 kh\u00dd.Trong m\u00e9t s\u00e8 tr\u00eang h\u00eep,l\u00df \u00aei\u00d6n ph\u00f8c t\u00b9p h\u00acn v\u00d2 c\u00cau t\u00b9o v\u00b5 khi s\u00f6 d\u00f4ng y\u00aau c\u00c7u c\u00e3 tr\u00d7ng \u00ae\u00e9 k\u00dc thu\u00cbt cao.Trong th\u00eai \u00ae\u00b9i ng\u00b5y nay ,qu\u00b8 tr\u00d7nh c\u00abng ngh\u00d6 ph\u00b8t tri\u00d3n cao,l\u00df \u00aei\u00d6n c\u00e3 th\u00d3 \u00ae\u00eec \u00aei\u00d2u khi\u00d3n b\u00bbng k\u00dc thu\u00cbt s\u00e8 do \u00ae\u00e3 ph\u00b6i c\u00e3 tr\u00d7nh \u00ae\u00e9 k\u00dc thu\u00cbt cao m\u00edi \u00ae\u00b8p \u00f8ng \u00ae\u00eec.

II-Gi\u00edi thi\u00d6u chung v\u00d2 l\u00df \u00aei\u00d6n tr\u00eb
1 - Nguy\u00aan l\u00fd l\u00b5m vi\u00d6c c\u00f1a l\u00df \u00aei\u00d6n tr\u00eb

L\u00df \u00aei\u00d6n tr\u00eb l\u00b5m vi\u00d6c d\u00f9a tr\u00aan c\u00ac s\u00eb khi c\u00e3 m\u00e9t d\u00dfng \u00aei\u00d6n ch\u00b9y qua m\u00e9t d\u00a9y d\u00c9n ho\u00c6c v\u00cbt d\u00c9n th\u00d7 \u00eb \u00ae\u00e3 s\u00cf to\u00b6 ra m\u00e9t l\u00eeng nhi\u00d6t theo \u00ae\u00denh lu\u00cbt Jun-Lenx\u00ac :

Q=I2R*t
Q - L\u00eeng nhi\u00d6t t\u00ddnh b\u00bbng Jun (J)
I - D\u00dfng \u00aei\u00d6n t\u00ddnh b\u00bbng Ampe (A)
R - \u00a7i\u00d6n tr\u00eb t\u00ddnh b\u00bbng \u00a4m
T - Th\u00eai gian t\u00ddnh b\u00bbng gi\u00a9y (s)

T\u00f5 c\u00abng th\u00f8c tr\u00aan ta th\u00cay \u00aei\u00d6n tr\u00eb R c\u00e3 th\u00d3 \u00ae\u00e3ng vai tr\u00df :
V\u00cbt nung : Tr\u00eang h\u00eep n\u00b5y g\u00e4i l\u00b5 nung tr\u00f9c ti\u00d5p

D\u00a9y nung : Khi d\u00a9y nung \u00ae\u00eec nung n\u00e3ng n\u00e3 s\u00cf truy\u00d2n nhi\u00d6t cho v\u00cbt nung b\u00bbng b\u00f8c x\u00b9, \u00ae\u00e8i lu, d\u00c9n nhi\u00d6t ho\u00c6c ph\u00f8c h\u00eep. Tr\u00eang h\u00eep n\u00b5y g\u00e4i l\u00b5 nung gi\u00b8n ti\u00d5p.

+Tr\u00eang h\u00eep th\u00f8 nh\u00cat \u00ddt g\u00c6p v\u00d7 n\u00e3 ch\u00d8 d\u00efng \u00ae\u00d3 nung nh\u00f7ng v\u00cbt c\u00e3 h\u00d7nh d\u00b9ng \u00ae\u00acn gi\u00b6n ( ti\u00d5t di\u00d6n ch\u00f7 nh\u00cbt, vu\u00abng v\u00b5 tr\u00dfn )+Tr\u00eang h\u00eep th\u00f8 hai th\u00eang g\u00c6p nhi\u00d2u trong th\u00f9c t\u00d5 c\u00abng

nghi\u00d6p. Cho n\u00aan n\u00e3i \u00ae\u00d5n l\u00df \u00aei\u00d6n tr\u00eb kh\u00abng th\u00d3 kh\u00abng \u00ae\u00d2 c\u00cbp
\u00ae\u00d5n v\u00cbt li\u00d2u \u00ae\u00d3 l\u00b5m d\u00a9y nung, b\u00e9 ph\u00cbn ph\u00b8t nhi\u00d6t c\u00f1a l\u00df.
2 - Nh\u00f7ng v\u00cbt li\u00d6u d\u00efng l\u00b5m d\u00a9y nung
a) - Y\u00aau c\u00c7u c\u00f1a v\u00cbt li\u00d6u d\u00efng l\u00b5m d\u00a9y nung

D\u00a9y nung l\u00b5 b\u00e9 ph\u00cbn ph\u00b8t nhi\u00d6t c\u00f1a l\u00df, l\u00b5m vi\u00d6c trong nh\u00f7ng \u00aei\u00d2u ki\u00d6n kh\u00bec nghi\u00d6t do \u00ae\u00e3 \u00ae\u00dfi h\u00e1i ph\u00b6i \u00ae\u00b6m b\u00b6o c\u00b8c y\u00d2 uc\u00c7 u sau :

+ Ch\u00deu n\u00e3ng t\u00e8t, \u00ddt b\u00de \u00abxy ho\u00b8 \u00eb nhi\u00d6t \u00ae\u00e9 cao
+ Ph\u00b6i c\u00e3 \u00ae\u00e9 b\u00d2n c\u00ac h\u00e4c cao, kh\u00abng b\u00de bi\u00d5n d\u00b9ng \u00eb

nhi\u00d6t \u00ae\u00e9 cao
+ \u00a7i\u00d6n tr\u00eb su\u00cat ph\u00b6i l\u00edn
+ H\u00d6 s\u00e8 nhi\u00d6t \u00aei\u00d6n tr\u00eb ph\u00b6i nh\u00e1
+ C\u00b8c t\u00ddnh ch\u00cat \u00aei\u00d6n ph\u00b6i c\u00e8 \u00ae\u00denh ho\u00c6c \u00ddt thay \u00ae\u00e6i
+ C\u00b8c k\u00ddch th\u00edc ph\u00b6i kh\u00abng thay \u00ae\u00e6i khi s\u00f6 d\u00f4ng
+ D\u00d4 gia c\u00abng, d\u00d4 h\u00b5n ho\u00a8c d\u00d4 \u00d0p khu\u00abn

2
2
b)- D\u00a9y nung kim lo\u00b9i

\u00a7\u00d3 \u00ae\u00b6m b\u00b6o y\u00aau c\u00c7u c\u00f1a d\u00a9y nung, trong h\u00c7u h\u00d5t c\u00b8c l\u00df \u00aei\u00d6n tr\u00eb c\u00abng nghi\u00d6p, d\u00a9y nung kim lo\u00b9i \u00ae\u00d2u \u00ae\u00eec ch\u00d5 t\u00b9o b\u00bbng c\u00b8c h\u00eep kim Cr\u00abm-Nh\u00abm v\u00b5 Cr\u00abm-Niken l\u00b5 c\u00b8c h\u00eep kim c\u00e3 \u00aei\u00d6n tr\u00eb l\u00edn. C\u00dfn c\u00b8c kim lo\u00b9i nguy\u00aan ch\u00cat \u00ae\u00eec d\u00efng \u00ae\u00d3 ch\u00d5 t\u00b9o d\u00a9y nung r\u00cat hi\u00d5m v\u00d7 c\u00b8c kim lo\u00b9i nguy\u00aan ch\u00cat th\u00eang c\u00e3 nh\u00f7ng t\u00ddnh ch\u00cat kh\u00abng c\u00e3 l\u00eei cho vi\u00d6c ch\u00d5 t\u00b9o d\u00a9y nung nh :

+ \u00a7i\u00d6n tr\u00eb su\u00cat nh\u00e1
+ H\u00d6 s\u00e8 nhi\u00d6t \u00aei\u00d6n tr\u00eb l\u00edn
+ B\u00de \u00abxy ho\u00b8 m\u00b9nh trong m\u00abi tr\u00eang kh\u00dd quy\u00d4n b\u00d7nh th-
\u00eang
+D\u00a9y nung kim lo\u00b9i th\u00eang \u00ae\u00eec ch\u00d5 t\u00b9o \u00eb d\u00b9ng tr\u00dfn v\u00b5
d\u00b9ng b\u00a8ng
c) - D\u00a9y nung phi kim lo\u00b9i
D\u00a9y nung phi kim lo\u00b9i d\u00efng ph\u00e6 bi\u00d5n l\u00b5 SiC, grafit v\u00b5
than.
III-C\u00cau t\u00b9o l\u00df \u00aei\u00d6n tr\u00eb
A- Nh\u00f7ng y\u00aau c\u00c7u c\u00ac b\u00b6n \u00ae\u00e8i v\u00edi c\u00cau t\u00b9o l\u00df \u00aei\u00d6n
1 - H\u00eep l\u00fd v\u00d2 c\u00abng ngh\u00d6

H\u00eep l\u00fd v\u00d2 c\u00abng ngh\u00d6 c\u00e3 ngh\u00dca l\u00b5 c\u00cau t\u00b9o l\u00df kh\u00abng nh\u00f7ng ph\u00ef h\u00eep v\u00edi qu\u00b8 tr\u00d7nh c\u00abng ngh\u00d6 y\u00aau c\u00c7u m\u00b5 c\u00e4n t\u00ddnh \u00ae\u00d5n kh\u00b6 n\u00a8ng s\u00f6 d\u00f4ng n\u00e3 \u00ae\u00e8i v\u00edi qu\u00b8 tr\u00d7nh c\u00abng ngh\u00d6 kh\u00b8c n\u00d5u nh kh\u00abng l\u00b5m ph\u00f8c t\u00b9p qu\u00b8 tr\u00d7nh gia c\u00abng v\u00b5 l\u00b5m t\u00a8ng gi\u00b8 th\u00b5nh m\u00e9t c\u00b8ch r\u00e2 r\u00d6t. C\u00cau tr\u00f3c l\u00df \u00ae\u00b6m b\u00b6o \u00ae\u00eec c\u00b8c \u00aei\u00d2u ki\u00d6n nh th\u00d5 m\u00edi coi l\u00b5 h\u00eep l\u00fd nh\u00cat. \u00a7i\u00d2u n\u00b5y \u00ae\u00c6c bi\u00d6t quan tr\u00e4ng trong khi nhu c\u00c7y v\u00d2 l\u00df \u00aei\u00d6n v\u00eet xa kh\u00b6 n\u00a8ng s\u00b6n xu\u00cat ra n\u00e3.

2 - Hi\u00d6u qu\u00b6 v\u00d2 k\u00fc thu\u00cbt

Hi\u00d6u qu\u00b6 v\u00d2 k\u00fc thu\u00cbt l\u00b5 kh\u00b6 n\u00a8ng bi\u00d3u th\u00de hi\u00aau su\u00cat c\u00f9c \u00ae\u00b9i c\u00f1a k\u00d5t c\u00cau khi c\u00b8c th\u00abng s\u00e8 c\u00f1a n\u00e3 x\u00b8c \u00ae\u00denh ( k\u00ddch th\u00edc ngo\u00b5i, c\u00abng su\u00cat, tr\u00e4ng l\u00eeng gi\u00b8 th\u00b5nhv.v... ).

\u00a7\u00e8i v\u00edi m\u00e9t thi\u00d5t b\u00de ho\u00c6c m\u00e9t v\u00cbt ph\u00c8m s\u00b6n xu\u00cat ra, n\u00a8ng su\u00cat tr\u00aan m\u00e9t \u00ae\u00acn v\u00de c\u00abng su\u00cat \u00ae\u00denh m\u00f8c, su\u00cat ti\u00aau hao \u00aei\u00d6n \u00ae\u00d3 nung v.v... l\u00b5 c\u00b8c ch\u00d8 ti\u00aau c\u00eb b\u00b6n c\u00f1a hi\u00d6u qu\u00b6 k\u00fc thu\u00cbt. C\u00dfn \u00ae\u00e8i v\u00edi t\u00f5ng ph\u00c7n ri\u00aang bi\u00d6t c\u00f1a k\u00d5t c\u00cau ho\u00c6c chi ti\u00d5t, hi\u00d6u qu\u00b6 k\u00fc thu\u00cbt \u00ae\u00eec \u00ae\u00b8nh gi\u00b8 b\u00bbng c\u00abng su\u00cat d\u00c9n \u00ae\u00e9ng, m\u00ab men xo\u00ben, l\u00f9c v.v... \u00f8ng v\u00edi tr\u00e4ng l\u00eeng, k\u00ddch th\u00edc ho\u00c6c gi\u00b8 th\u00b5nh k\u00d5t c\u00cau.

3 - Ch\u00bec ch\u00ben khi l\u00b5m vi\u00d6c

Ch\u00bec ch\u00ben khi l\u00b5m vi\u00d6c l\u00b5 m\u00e9t trong nh\u00f7ng ch\u00d8 ti\u00aau quan tr\u00e4ng nh\u00cat c\u00f1a ch\u00cat l\u00eeng k\u00d5t c\u00cau c\u00f1a c\u00b8c l\u00df \u00aei\u00d6n. Th\u00eang c\u00b8c l\u00df \u00aei\u00d6n l\u00b5m vi\u00aac li\u00aan t\u00f4c trong m\u00e9t ca, hai ca v\u00b5 ngay c\u00b6 ba ca m\u00e9t ng\u00b5y. N\u00d5u trong khi l\u00b5m vi\u00d6c, m\u00e9t b\u00e9 ph\u00cbn n\u00b5o \u00ae\u00e3 kh\u00abng ho\u00b5n h\u00b6o s\u00cf \u00b6nh h\u00ebng \u00ae\u00d5n qu\u00b8 tr\u00d7nh s\u00b6n su\u00cat chung. \u00a7i\u00d2u n\u00b5y

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