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Published by: api-3765936 on Oct 16, 2008
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Capacity: 80GW total; 30GW natural gas, 25GW coal, 20GW nuclear, 5GW Renewables
Generated 500TWh
Load factors: nuclear 0.9, coal 0.75, Renewable 0.3

a) Amount generated:
nuclear: E= C\u00d7P\u00d724hrs\u00d7365 days/ 1000= 0.9\u00d7 20\u00d7 24\u00d70.365= 157.7TWh
coal: E = 0.75\u00d725\u00d724\u00d70.365= 164.3TWh
Renewabls: E = 0.3\u00d7 5\u00d7 24\u00d7 0.365= 15.3TWh
This accounts for 337.3TWh, and the remaining 162.7TWh must have come from gas
The load factor for the gas generation was thus C=E/P/24/0.365= 30/162.7/24/.365= 0.62

b) Carbon dioxide emissions
Coal: Heat content 30MJ/kg; carbon content 0.85; efficiency 0.3

Electricity generated: 164.3TWh = 164.3\u00d7 3.6\u00d7109 MJ= 5.91\u00d71011 MJ
Required heat input: Output/efficiency = 5.91\u00d71011/0.3 = 1.97\u00d71012 MJ
Amount of coal: heat/heat content: 1.97\u00d71012 / 30= 6.57\u00d71010 kg
Amount of carbon: amount of coal\u00d7 carbon content= 6.57\u00d71010\u00d70.85= 5.58\u00d71010 kg
Each carbon atom, of weight 12, reacts with an oxygen molecule of weight 2\u00d716=32 to

make carbon dioxide of weight 12+2\u00d716= 44. So, each kg of carbon results in
44/12= 3.67kg of carbon dioxide.
This gives a total emission from coal of 5.58\u00d71010\u00d73.67 = 2.05\u00d71011 kg
gas: Heat content 50MJ/kg; methane content 0.75, ethane 0.1; efficiency 0.5

Electricity generated: 162.8TWh = 162.8\u00d7 3.6\u00d7109 MJ= 5.86\u00d71011 MJ
Required heat input: Output/efficiency = 5.86\u00d71011/0.5 = 1.17\u00d71012 MJ
Amount of gas: heat/heat content: 1.17\u00d71012 / 50= 2.34\u00d71010 kg. Of this is

2.34\u00d71010\u00d7 0.75= 1.76\u00d71010 kg methane and 2.34\u00d71010\u00d7 0.1= 2.34\u00d7109 kg ethane.

For methane, each methane molecule, of weight 12+4= 16, reacts with an oxygen molecule
of weight 2\u00d716=32 to make carbon dioxide of weight 16+2\u00d716= 48. So, each kg of methane
results in 48/16= 3kg of carbon dioxide.
This gives an emission from methane of 1.76\u00d71010\u00d73 = 5.27\u00d71010 kg

For ethane, C2H6, each molecule, of weight 2\u00d712+6= 30, reacts with two oxygen molecule
of weight 2\u00d72\u00d716=64 to make 2 carbon dioxide molecules of weight 2\u00d7(16+2\u00d716)= 96.
So, each kg of methane results in 96/30= 3.2kg of carbon dioxide.
This gives an emission from methane of 2.34\u00d7109\u00d73.2 = 7.50\u00d7109 kg

The carbon dioxide emission from the gas-fired generation was therefore 6.02\u00d71010 kg, and
the total carbon dioxide emission was 2.65\u00d71011 kg.

c) New gas requirement
The projected annual consumption is 575TWh.
With a maximum load factor, the gas generation would be = C\u00d7P\u00d724hrs\u00d7365 days/ 1000=

0.85\u00d7 30\u00d7 24\u00d70.365= 223.4TWh.
With the existing generation from the other fuels, one could therefore provide 337.3TWh +
223.4TWh= 560.6TWh, leaving a shortfall of 14.4TWh.
To cover this by gas, the new capacity has to be P= E/C\u00d724\u00d7365)\u00d71000= 1.93GW ~ 2GW.

d) Switch from coal to gas
The total carbon dioxide emission may not exceed 0.9\u00d72.65\u00d71011 kg= 2.38\u00d71011 kg.
From (b) we know that

each TWh from coal results in 2.05\u00d71011 kg/ 164.3TWh= 1.25\u00d7109 kg/TWh, and
each TWh from gas results in 6.02\u00d71010 kg/ 162.8TWh= 3.70\u00d7108 kg/TWh.

Just using the existing generation capacity plus the 2GW found in (c), we would get a total emission of the current emission from coal, 2.05\u00d71011 kg, and that from the gas generation (224.4TWh+14.4TWh= 238.8TWh) of 3.70\u00d7108 kg/TWh\u00d7238.8TWh= 2.93\u00d71011 kg.

A reduction of 2.93\u00d71011 kg \u2013 2.38\u00d71011 kg= 5.43\u00d71010 kg is needed by switching from coal
to gas.

The net saving per TWh switched is 8.77\u00d7108 kg/TWh,
and we need 5.43\u00d71010 kg/8.77\u00d7108 kg/TWh= 61.9TWh, which can be provided by an
additional capacity of 61.9TWh/(0.85\u00d724\u00d7365)\u00d71000= 8.31GW.

The capacity from coal which can be taken off is 9TWh/(0.75\u00d724\u00d7365)\u00d71000= 9.42GW.
To cover the growth in demand and reduce the carbon dioxide emissions, a total new
capacity of gas-fired generation is therefore 1.93+8.31= 10.24GW.

e) The student should question whether this policy can be sustained in the long term, given the
decline in gas reserves, both in the North Sea and globally. At some point, the gas prices will
become very high, and the country will be become dependent on the gas suppliers (ME/NA/FSU)\u2026

The entire problem is treated as one-dimensional heat transfer.
Chip: Area A= 0.01\u00d70.025= 0.00025m2; Insulation: di= 0.002m; ki= 0.2W/(mK)
Thermal paste Rp= 0.5W/K; Aluminium da= 0.001m, ka= 300 W/(mK)

Board: db= 0.002m, kb= 0.2W/(mK); hb= 0.5W/(m2K);
Air: 35\u00b0C
Heat flux 300mW
a) Total thermal resistance required:R=\u2206 T/Q= 25/0.3= 83.3 K/W.
b) Thermal resistance to heat transfer through board:

R= ( di/ki + db/kb + 1/hb)/A= 8080 K/W.
As this is a factor of 100 larger than the required resistance, very little waste heat can be lost
through the board, and this contribution can be ignored

c) Thermal resistance to surface of aluminium:
R= ( di/ki + da/ka)/A + Rp = 40.5 K/W.
As a result the convective heat transfer from the top of the heat sink must result in a

resistance of Rc= 83.3\u201340.5= 42.8 K/W
Rc= 1/(hA)\u2192 A= 1/(hRc)= 1/(25\u00d742.8)= 0.00093m2.
This is 3.74 times larger than the chip surface -> seems reasonable.

d) Using Ahs= 0.001m2:
The thermal resistance for the convection is then Rc= 1/(25\u00d70.001)= 40 K/W, and the total
resistance is R= 80.5 K/W.
The temperature of the chip is then T= T0 + R Q= 35 + 80.5\u00d70.3= 59.2\u00b0C,
and the temperature of the heat sink is T= T0 + Rc Q= 35 + 40\u00d70.3= 59.2\u00b0C.

e) check assumption
The thermal resistance including that through the board is
1/R = 1/Rtop + 1/Rboard= 1/80.5 + 1/8080= 0.012544 or R= 79.7.
The error was therefore 80.5-79.7= 0.8, or 0.8/79.7= 1%

f) broken fan, h= 5W/(m2K)
The thermal resistance for the natural convection is then Rc= 1/(5\u00d70.001)= 200 K/W, and the
total resistance is R= 240.5 K/W.
The temperature of the chip is then T= T0 + R Q= 35 + 240.5\u00d70.3= 107\u00b0C,
and the temperature of the heat sink is T= T0 + Rc Q= 35 + 200\u00d70.3= 95\u00b0C.
Maximum heat generation: Q= DT/R= 25/240.5= 104mW.

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