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Published by api-3765953

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Published by: api-3765953 on Oct 16, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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ISBN-10: 1558608281
ISBN-13: 978-1558608283
Chapter 8 Headend Singal Processing
This chapter deals with the electronic devices most commonly used in headends to format signals for
transmission on a cable planet. These devices include:
RF singal processors are used to take television signal off the air or from an incoming cable and put them
on the cable. They are normally used to transfer incoming VSB-AM signals from off-air antennas or
incoming cables.
Modulators, miniature transmitters that accept baseband audio and video signals and convert them to a
Demodulators converting an RF signal back to baseband video and audio.
Stereophonic encoders convert left and right channel audio into the composite stereo format used in
television transmission
Earth station receivers convert signals coming from communications satellites to baseband audio and
video. Often these are used withdescrambler s that deal with the proprietary scrambling format currently
used with most analog satellite transmissions.
Inside a RF signal processor, the signal pass is like this:
A RF Bandpass filter (BPF1) is tuned to the incoming channel
A variable attenuator (AT1) to reduce signal amplitutde
A RF amplifier (A1)
A Mixer (M1) to convert RF to intermediate frequency (IF) using a local oscillator (LO1).
North America IF is 45.75MHz for the picture carrier and 41.25MHz for the sound carrier.
PAL countries use 38.9MHz for the picture carrier and 33.4 (PAL-B/G) or 32.9 (PAL-I) MHz for the
audio IF. In China, 38 MHz is used for the picture carrier IF.
A IF Bandpass filter (BPF3) tuned to the IF band, normally 41~47MHz for NTSC signals.
There are two Automatic Gain Control (AGC) logics apply to both RF session and IF session

A switch (S2) selects the standby carrier upon loss of input signal. The standby carrier was originally employed to prevent TVs from showing snow when a signal goes off the air. It is also employed if the output channel is used as a pilot for the distribution system. A pilot signal is used to set the gain of distribution systems, and if it disappears when a TV station goes off the air, the operating point of the distribution system will be upset.


Then another switch (S3, optional) is used to switch to an alternative IF signal supplied at the \u201cComposite IF in\u201d connector. For example, the cable operator may carry a local television station that goes off the air at night. It is desired to substitute another signal on the channel when the local station goes off the air.

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