Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword or section
Like this
4Activity
P. 1
INTERNET

INTERNET

Ratings: (0)|Views: 603 |Likes:
Published by api-3766251

More info:

Published by: api-3766251 on Oct 16, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOC, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

03/18/2014

pdf

text

original

GI\u1edaI THI\u1ec6U INTERNET

Internet - c\u0169ng \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c bi\u1ebft v\u1edbi t\u00ean g\u1ecdi Net - l\u00e0 m\u1ea1ng m\u00e1y t\u00ednh l\u1edbn nh\u1ea5t th\u1ebf gi\u1edbi, ho\u1eb7c ch\u00ednh
x\u00e1c h\u01a1n l\u00e0 m\u1ea1ng c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c m\u1ea1ng, t\u1ee9c bao g\u1ed3m nhi\u1ec1u m\u1ea1ng m\u00e1y t\u00ednh \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c n\u1ed1i l\u1ea1i v\u1edbi nhau.
M\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 m\u1ea1ng m\u00e1y t\u00ednh bao g\u1ed3m m\u1ed9t m\u00e1y t\u00ednh trung t\u00e2m (c\u00f2n g\u1ecdi l\u00e0 m\u00e1y ch\u1ee7 hay m\u00e1y ph\u1ee5c
v\u1ee5) v\u00e0 nhi\u1ec1u m\u00e1y kh\u00e1c (c\u00f2n g\u1ecdi l\u00e0 m\u00e1y kh\u00e1ch h\u00e0ng hay tr\u1ea1m l\u00e0m vi\u1ec7c) n\u1ed1i v\u00e0o n\u00f3. C\u00e1c
m\u1ea1ng kh\u00e1c, k\u1ec3 c\u1ea3 Internet, c\u00f3 quy m\u00f4 l\u1edbn h\u01a1n, bao g\u1ed3m nhi\u1ec1u m\u00e1y ch\u1ee7 v\u00e0 cho ph\u00e9p b\u1ea5t k\u1ef3
m\u1ed9t m\u00e1y t\u00ednh n\u00e0o trong m\u1ea1ng c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 k\u1ebft n\u1ed1i v\u1edbi b\u1ea5t k\u1ef3 m\u00e1y n\u00e0o kh\u00e1c \u0111\u1ec3 trao \u0111\u1ed5i th\u00f4ng tin
tho\u1ea3i m\u00e1i v\u1edbi nhau. M\u1ed9t khi \u0111\u00e3 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c k\u1ebft n\u1ed1i v\u00e0o Internet, m\u00e1y t\u00ednh c\u1ee7a b\u1ea1n s\u1ebd l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t trong
s\u1ed1 h\u00e0ng ch\u1ee5c tri\u1ec7u th\u00e0nh vi\u00ean c\u1ee7a m\u1ea1ng kh\u1ed5ng l\u1ed3 n\u00e0y.

M\u1ea1ng c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c tr\u01b0\u1eddng \u0111\u1ea1i h\u1ecdc v\u00e0 vi\u1ec7n nghi\u00ean c\u1ee9u l\u00e0 nh\u1eefng th\u00e0nh vi\u00ean l\u00e2u \u0111\u1eddi c\u1ee7a Internet.
S\u1ef1 b\u00f9ng n\u1ed5 Internet trong v\u00f2ng hai n\u0103m tr\u1edf l\u1ea1i \u0111\u00e2y c\u0169ng gi\u1ed1ng nh\u01b0 khi TV xu\u1ea5t hi\u1ec7n v\u00e0o \u0111\u1ea7u
nh\u1eefng n\u0103m 50. S\u1ed1 ng\u01b0\u1eddi d\u00f9ng gia nh\u1eadp Internet t\u0103ng v\u1edbi t\u1ed1c \u0111\u1ed9 r\u1ea5t nhanh. Theo \u01b0\u1edbc t\u00ednh,
con s\u1ed1 n\u00e0y s\u1ebd l\u00e0 16 tri\u1ec7u v\u00e0o cu\u1ed1i n\u0103m nay.

C\u00f3 th\u1ec3 l\u00e0m \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c g\u00ec v\u1edbi Net?

V\u1ec1 th\u1ef1c ch\u1ea5t, Internet l\u00e0 c\u00f4ng ngh\u1ec7 th\u00f4ng tin li\u00ean l\u1ea1c m\u1edbi, n\u00f3 t\u00e1c \u0111\u1ed9ng s\u00e2u s\u1eafc v\u00e0o x\u00e3 h\u1ed9i,
cu\u1ed9c s\u1ed1ng c\u1ee7a ch\u00fang ta, l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ti\u1ec7n c\u1ea7n thi\u1ebft nh\u01b0 \u0111i\u1ec7n tho\u1ea1i hay TV, nh\u01b0ng \u1edf m\u1ed9t
m\u1ee9c \u0111\u1ed9 bao qu\u00e1t h\u01a1n nhi\u1ec1u. Ch\u1eb3ng h\u1ea1n, \u0111i\u1ec7n tho\u1ea1i ch\u1ec9 cho ph\u00e9p b\u1ea1n trao \u0111\u1ed5i th\u00f4ng tin qua
\u00e2m thanh, gi\u1ecdng n\u00f3i. V\u1edbi TV th\u00ec th\u00f4ng tin b\u1ea1n nh\u1eadn \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c s\u1ebd tr\u1ef1c quan h\u01a1n. C\u00f2n Internet l\u1ea1i
h\u01a1i kh\u00e1c. N\u00f3 \u0111\u01b0a b\u1ea1n v\u00e0o m\u1ed9t th\u1ebf gi\u1edbi c\u00f3 t\u1ea7m nh\u00ecn r\u1ed9ng h\u01a1n v\u00e0 b\u1ea1n c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 l\u00e0m m\u1ecdi th\u1ee9: vi\u1ebft
th\u01b0, \u0111\u1ecdc b\u00e1o, xem b\u1ea3n tin, gi\u1ea3i tr\u00ed, tra c\u1ee9u v\u00e0 th\u1eadm ch\u00ed c\u00f2n c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 th\u1ef1c hi\u1ec7n nh\u1eefng phi v\u1ee5
l\u00e0m \u0103n.

Ng\u00e0y nay, khi n\u00f3i v\u1ec1 Internet, m\u1ecdi ng\u01b0\u1eddi th\u01b0\u1eddng \u0111\u1ec1 c\u1eadp \u0111\u1ebfn vi\u1ec7c h\u1ecd c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 l\u00e0m g\u00ec v\u00e0 \u0111\u00e3 g\u1eb7p
ai. Kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng c\u1ee7a Internet r\u1ea5t l\u1edbn, v\u00e0 ch\u1ec9 c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 t\u00f3m l\u01b0\u1ee3c m\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 \u0111i\u1ec3m ch\u00ednh sau \u0111\u00e2y.
Th\u01b0 \u0111i\u1ec7n t\u1eed (E-mail)

\u0110\u00e2y l\u00e0 d\u1ecbch v\u1ee5 c\u1ee7a Internet \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng nhi\u1ec1u nh\u1ea5t. B\u1ea1n c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 trao \u0111\u1ed5i th\u01b0 (e-mail) v\u1edbi
h\u00e0ng tri\u1ec7u ng\u01b0\u1eddi kh\u1eafp th\u1ebf gi\u1edbi. Ng\u01b0\u1eddi ta s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng e-mail v\u00e0o b\u1ea5t c\u1ee9 vi\u1ec7c g\u00ec m\u00e0 h\u1ecd c\u00f3 th\u1ec3
l\u00e0m v\u1edbi gi\u1ea5y hay \u0111i\u1ec7n tho\u1ea1i: b\u00e0n c\u00f4ng vi\u1ec7c, t\u00e1n g\u1eabu, h\u1ecfi th\u0103m, t\u1ecf t\u00ecnh... v\u00e0 c\u1ea3 nh\u1eefng chuy\u1ec7n
phi ph\u00e1p n\u1eefa. Danh s\u00e1ch th\u01b0 \u0111i\u1ec7n t\u1eed (mailing list) cho ph\u00e9p b\u1ea1n gia nh\u1eadp v\u00e0o nh\u1eefng cu\u1ed9c
b\u00e0n lu\u1eadn theo nh\u00f3m ng\u01b0\u1eddi c\u00f3 c\u00f9ng m\u1ed1i quan t\u00e2m v\u00e0 g\u1eb7p g\u1ee1 th\u00f4ng qua m\u1ea1ng. D\u1ecbch v\u1ee5 th\u01b0
t\u00edn (Mail Servers) gi\u00fap b\u1ea1n truy c\u1eadp nh\u1eefng th\u00f4ng tin c\u1ea7n thi\u1ebft.

World Wide Web

\u0110\u00e2y l\u00e0 kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m m\u00e0 ng\u01b0\u1eddi d\u00f9ng Internet quan t\u00e2m nhi\u1ec1u nh\u1ea5t hi\u1ec7n nay. Ng\u01b0\u1eddi ta vi\u1ebft t\u1eaft l\u00e0 WWW hay g\u1ecdi ng\u1eafn g\u1ecdn l\u00e0 Web. Web l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t c\u00f4ng c\u1ee5, hay \u0111\u00fang h\u01a1n l\u00e0 d\u1ecbch v\u1ee5 c\u1ee7a Internet. Kh\u00e1c v\u1edbi c\u00e1c d\u1ecbch v\u1ee5 tr\u01b0\u1edbc \u0111\u00e2y c\u1ee7a Net, Web ch\u1ee9a th\u00f4ng tin bao g\u1ed3m v\u0103n b\u1ea3n, h\u00ecnh \u1ea3nh, \u00e2m thanh v\u00e0 th\u1eadm ch\u00ed c\u1ea3 video \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c k\u1ebft h\u1ee3p v\u1edbi nhau. Web cho ph\u00e9p b\u1ea1n c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 chui v\u00e0o m\u1ecdi ng\u00f5 ng\u00e1ch tr\u00ean Net, l\u00e0 nh\u1eefng \u0111i\u1ec3m ch\u1ee9a CSDL g\u1ecdi l\u00e0 Web site. Nh\u1edd c\u00f3 Web, n\u00ean d\u00f9 kh\u00f4ng ph\u1ea3i l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t chuy\u00ean gia, b\u1ea1n v\u1eabn c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng Internet. Ph\u1ea7n m\u1ec1m s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng \u0111\u1ec3 \u0111\u1ecbnh h\u01b0\u1edbng Web g\u1ecdi l\u00e0 b\u1ed9 duy\u1ec7t (browser). Hi\u1ec7n nay, b\u1ed9 duy\u1ec7t th\u00f4ng d\u1ee5ng nh\u1ea5t l\u00e0 Navigator c\u1ee7a Netscape, ti\u1ebfp \u0111\u00f3 l\u00e0 Internet Explorer c\u1ee7a Microsoft (k\u00e8m theo H\u0110H Windows 95).

Truy xu\u1ea5t d\u1eef li\u1ec7u
Nhi\u1ec1u m\u00e1y t\u00ednh (server) tr\u00ean Internet ch\u1ee9a c\u00e1c t\u1eadp tin m\u00e0 b\u1ea1n c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 truy xu\u1ea5t t\u1ef1 do. \u0110\u00e2y l\u00e0
nh\u1eefng th\u01b0 vi\u1ec7n catalog, s\u00e1ch, t\u1ea1p ch\u00ed, h\u00ecnh \u1ea3nh s\u1ed1 ho\u00e1 v\u00e0 v\u00f4 s\u1ed1 ph\u1ea7n m\u1ec1m m\u00e1y t\u00ednh, t\u1eeb tr\u00f2
ch\u01a1i \u0111\u1ebfn H\u0110H. N\u00f3i chung, Internet l\u00e0 c\u1ea3 m\u1ed9t kho th\u00f4ng tin kh\u1ed5ng l\u1ed3 m\u00e0 ch\u1ec9 c\u1ea7n ng\u1ed3i m\u1ed9t
ch\u1ed7, b\u1ea1n c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 v\u1edbi t\u1edbi.

Nh\u01b0ng c\u1ea7n l\u01b0u \u00fd m\u1ed9t \u0111i\u1ec1u: th\u00f4ng tin tr\u00ean Net b\u1ea1n c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 l\u1ea5y tho\u1ea3i m\u00e1i kh\u00f4ng m\u1ea5t ti\u1ec1n, nh\u01b0ng ch\u1eafc ch\u1eafn khi nh\u1eadn \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c phi\u1ebfu thanh to\u00e1n c\u01b0\u1edbc \u0111i\u1ec7n tho\u1ea1i sau \u0111\u00f3, b\u1ea1n s\u1ebd r\u00fat ra \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c m\u1ed9t \u0111i\u1ec1u l\u00e0 \u00edt khi ng\u01b0\u1eddi ta cho kh\u00f4ng c\u00e1i g\u00ec! Kh\u00f4ng tin? b\u1ea1n h\u00e3y ti\u1ebfp t\u1ee5c \u0111\u1ecdc nh\u1eefng ph\u1ea7n ti\u1ebfp theo.

Ngu\u1ed3n g\u1ed1c c\u1ee7a Internet
N\u1ebfu kh\u00f4ng th\u00edch chuy\u1ec7n c\u1ee7a qu\u00e1 kh\u1ee9, b\u1ea1n h\u00e3y b\u1ecf qua m\u1ee5c n\u00e0y.

Ti\u1ec1n th\u00e2n c\u1ee7a Internet l\u00e0 ARPANET, m\u1ea1ng m\u00e1y t\u00ednh \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c x\u00e2y d\u1ef1ng b\u1edfi B\u1ed9 Qu\u1ed1c Ph\u00f2ng M\u1ef9 (DOD) v\u00e0o n\u0103m 1969 v\u1eeba \u0111\u1ec3 th\u1eed nghi\u1ec7m \u0111\u1ed9 tin c\u1eady c\u1ee7a m\u1ea1ng v\u00e0 v\u1eeba nh\u1eb1m k\u1ebft n\u1ed1i nh\u1eefng c\u01a1 s\u1edf nghi\u00ean c\u1ee9u v\u1edbi m\u1ee5c \u0111\u00edch qu\u00e2n s\u1ef1, bao g\u1ed3m m\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 l\u01b0\u1ee3ng l\u1edbn c\u00e1c tr\u01b0\u1eddng \u0111\u1ea1i h\u1ecdc, vi\u1ec7n nghi\u00ean c\u1ee9u. ARPANET kh\u1edfi \u0111\u1ea7u v\u1edbi quy m\u00f4 nh\u1ecf, nh\u01b0ng \u0111\u00e3 nhanh ch\u00f3ng b\u00e0nh tr\u01b0\u1edbng ra kh\u1eafp n\u01b0\u1edbc M\u1ef9.

M\u1ed9t ph\u1ea7n c\u1ee7a \u0111\u1ed9 tin c\u1eady m\u1ea1ng thu\u1ed9c v\u1ec1 v\u1ea5n \u0111\u1ec1 \u0111\u1ecbnh h\u01b0\u1edbng \u0111\u1ed9ng (dynamic routing). N\u1ebfu
m\u1ed9t trong s\u1ed1 nhi\u1ec1u li\u00ean k\u1ebft c\u1ee7a m\u1ea1ng b\u1ecb gi\u00e1n \u0111o\u1ea1n do t\u1ea5n c\u00f4ng t\u1eeb b\u00ean ngo\u00e0i, l\u01b0u th\u00f4ng tr\u00ean
\u0111o\u1ea1n \u0111\u00f3 ph\u1ea3i \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c t\u1ef1 \u0111\u1ed9ng chuy\u1ec3n sang li\u00ean k\u1ebft kh\u00e1c. Th\u1eadt may m\u1eafn, ch\u01b0a c\u00f3 s\u1ef1 t\u1ea5n c\u00f4ng
n\u00e0o x\u1ea3y ra c\u1ea3....

Th\u00e0nh c\u00f4ng c\u1ee7a ARPANET \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c nh\u00e2n l\u00ean g\u1ea5p b\u1ed9i, t\u1ea5t c\u1ea3 c\u00e1c tr\u01b0\u1eddng \u0111\u1ea1i h\u1ecdc \u0111\u1ec1u \u0111\u0103ng k\u00fd
gia nh\u1eadp. Tuy nhi\u00ean, quy m\u00f4 l\u1edbn c\u1ee7a m\u1ea1ng \u0111\u00e3 g\u00e2y kh\u00f3 kh\u0103n trong v\u1ea5n \u0111\u1ec1 qu\u1ea3n l\u00fd. T\u1eeb \u0111\u00f3,
ARPANET \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c chia l\u00e0m hai ph\u1ea7n: MILNET l\u00e0 h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng m\u1ea1ng d\u00e0nh cho qu\u00e2n s\u1ef1 v\u00e0
ARPANET m\u1edbi nh\u1ecf h\u01a1n, kh\u00f4ng thu\u1ed9c DOD. Tuy nhi\u00ean hai m\u1ea1ng v\u1eabn li\u00ean k\u1ebft v\u1edbi nhau nh\u1edd
gi\u1ea3i ph\u00e1p k\u1ef9 thu\u1eadt g\u1ecdi l\u00e0 IP (Internet Protocol), cho ph\u00e9p th\u00f4ng tin truy\u1ec1n t\u1eeb m\u1ea1ng n\u00e0y sang
m\u1ea1ng kh\u00e1c khi c\u1ea7n thi\u1ebft. T\u1ea5t c\u1ea3 c\u00e1c m\u1ea1ng \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c n\u1ed1i v\u00e0o Internet \u0111\u1ec1u s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng IP.

Tuy ch\u1ec9 c\u00f3 hai m\u1ea1ng l\u00fac b\u1ea5y gi\u1edd nh\u01b0ng IP \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c thi\u1ebft k\u1ebf cho h\u00e0ng ch\u1ee5c ngh\u00ecn m\u1ea1ng. M\u1ed9t \u0111i\u1ec1u kh\u00e1c th\u01b0\u1eddng trong thi\u1ebft k\u1ebf c\u1ee7a IP l\u00e0 b\u1ea5t k\u1ef3 m\u1ed9t m\u00e1y n\u00e0o trong IP \u0111\u1ec1u c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 li\u00ean l\u1ea1c \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c v\u1edbi m\u1ed9t m\u00e1y kh\u00e1c b\u1ea5t k\u1ef3. \u0110i\u1ec1u n\u00e0y c\u00f3 v\u1ebb nh\u01b0 l\u00e0 hi\u1ec3n nhi\u00ean nh\u01b0ng b\u1ea1n n\u00ean bi\u1ebft r\u1eb1ng v\u00e0o th\u1eddi \u0111i\u1ec3m \u0111\u00f3, trong ph\u1ea7n l\u1edbn nh\u1eefng m\u1ea1ng m\u00e1y t\u00ednh, m\u00e1y \u0111\u1ea7u cu\u1ed1i (terminal) ch\u1ec9 c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 k\u1ebft n\u1ed1i v\u1edbi m\u00e1y trung t\u00e2m, m\u00e0 kh\u00f4ng th\u1ec3 v\u1edbi m\u00e1y \u0111\u1ea7u cu\u1ed1i kh\u00e1c.

World Wide Web xu\u1ea5t hi\u1ec7n b\u1edfi nhu c\u1ea7u c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c vi\u1ec7n v\u00e0 tr\u01b0\u1eddng \u0111\u1ea1i h\u1ecdc v\u00e0 m\u1eb7c d\u00f9 c\u00e1c c\u01a1 s\u1edf
khoa h\u1ecdc n\u00e0y v\u1eabn \u0111\u00f3ng vai tr\u00f2 ch\u1ee7 \u0111\u1ea1o nh\u01b0ng Web \u0111\u00e3 bi\u1ebfn th\u00e0nh n\u01a1i ch\u1ee9a th\u00f4ng tin
multimedia, gi\u1ea3i tr\u00ed v\u00e0 li\u00ean l\u1ea1c. T\u1ed1c \u0111\u1ed9 ph\u00e1t tri\u1ec3n c\u1ee7a Web nhanh h\u01a1n b\u1ea5t k\u1ef3 ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ti\u1ec7n n\u00e0o
c\u00f3 t\u1eeb tr\u01b0\u1edbc t\u1edbi nay.

Internet c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 ch\u1ed1ng l\u1ea1i s\u1ef1 t\u1ea5n c\u00f4ng

Trong cu\u1ed9c chi\u1ebfn tranh V\u00f9ng V\u1ecbnh n\u0103m 1991, qu\u00e2n \u0111\u1ed9i M\u1ef9 \u0111\u00e3 kh\u00f4ng th\u00e0nh c\u00f4ng trong vi\u1ec7c ph\u00e1 h\u1ee7y
h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng ch\u1ec9 huy c\u1ee7a qu\u00e2n \u0111\u1ed9i Iraq. Sau \u0111\u00f3, m\u1edbi v\u1ee1 l\u1ebd ra l\u00e0 Iraq \u0111\u00e3 s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng c\u00e1c b\u1ed9 \u0111\u1ecbnh h\u01b0\u1edbng
(router) m\u1ea1ng c\u00f3 tr\u00ean th\u1ecb tr\u01b0\u1eddng v\u1edbi c\u00f4ng ngh\u1ec7 kh\u00f4i ph\u1ee5c v\u00e0 \u0111\u1ecbnh h\u01b0\u1edbng chu\u1ea9n c\u1ee7a Internet. \u0110i\u1ec1u
n\u00e0y cho th\u1ea5y \u0111\u1ecbnh h\u01b0\u1edbng \u0111\u1ed9ng th\u1ef1c s\u1ef1 c\u00f3 t\u00e1c d\u1ee5ng.

\u2022

World Wide Web xu\u1ea5t hi\u1ec7n b\u1edfi nhu c\u1ea7u c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c vi\u1ec7n v\u00e0 tr\u01b0\u1eddng \u0111\u1ea1i h\u1ecdc v\u00e0 m\u1eb7c d\u00f9 c\u00e1c c\u01a1 s\u1edf khoa h\u1ecdc n\u00e0y v\u1eabn \u0111\u00f3ng vai tr\u00f2 ch\u1ee7 \u0111\u1ea1o nh\u01b0ng Web \u0111\u00e3 bi\u1ebfn th\u00e0nh n\u01a1i ch\u1ee9a th\u00f4ng tin multimedia, gi\u1ea3i tr\u00ed v\u00e0 li\u00ean l\u1ea1c. T\u1ed1c \u0111\u1ed9 ph\u00e1t tri\u1ec3n c\u1ee7a Web nhanh h\u01a1n b\u1ea5t c\u1ee9 ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ti\u1ec7n n\u00e0o c\u00f3 t\u1eeb tr\u01b0\u1edbc t\u1edbi nay.

\u2022
V\u1edbi ng\u01b0\u1eddi d\u00f9ng Internet, Web c\u00f3 s\u1ee9c h\u1ea5p d\u1eabn b\u1edfi v\u00e0i l\u00fd do. Tr\u01b0\u1edbc h\u1ebft, n\u00f3 cho ph\u00e9p hi\u1ec3n
th\u1ecb th\u00f4ng tin b\u1ea1n truy t\u00ecm theo ch\u1ebf \u0111\u1ed9 \u0111\u1ed3 ho\u1ea1, h\u01a1n h\u1eb3n nh\u1eefng d\u00f2ng text bu\u1ed3n t\u1ebb c\u1ee7a
Internet "tr\u01b0\u1edbc \u0111\u00e2y".
\u2022

Web c\u0169ng l\u00e0 ch\u1ed7 c\u1ee7a n\u01a1i bu\u00f4n b\u00e1n. Ti\u1ebfp th\u1ecb v\u1eabn c\u00f2n l\u00e0 t\u1eeb kh\u00f4ng m\u1ea5y d\u1ec5 ch\u1ecbu trong m\u1ed9t s\u1ed1
n\u01a1i tr\u00ean Net, nh\u01b0ng n\u00f3 l\u1ea1i l\u00e0 \u0111\u1ed9ng l\u1ef1c ch\u1ee7 \u0111\u1ea1o c\u1ee7a Web. Ng\u01b0\u1eddi ta mua b\u00e1n \u0111\u1ee7 th\u1ee9 tr\u00ean
Web, t\u1eeb ph\u1ea7n m\u1ec1m cho \u0111\u1ebfn c\u00e0 ph\u00ea, \u0111\u1ed3 ch\u01a1i tr\u1ebb em.

\u2022
World Wide Web \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c coi nh\u01b0 m\u1ed9t xa l\u1ed9 th\u00f4ng tin t\u1ed1t nh\u1ea5t. V\u1edbi nh\u1eefng c\u00f4ng ngh\u1ec7 ti\u00ean ti\u1ebfn
\u0111ang \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c tri\u1ec3n khai, ch\u00fang ta s\u1ebd c\u00f3 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c \u00e2m thanh, h\u00ecnh \u1ea3nh ch\u1ea5t l\u01b0\u1ee3ng cao t\u1eeb Web.
\u2022

Tuy nhi\u00ean, \u0111i\u1ec1u \u0111\u00e1ng n\u00f3i nh\u1ea5t khi \u0111\u1ec1 c\u1eadp v\u1ec1 Web l\u00e0 kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng bao tr\u00f9m r\u1ed9ng l\u1edbn c\u1ee7a n\u00f3. Ch\u1eb3ng h\u1ea1n n\u1ebfu \u0111i\u1ec1u ki\u1ec7n t\u00e0i ch\u00ednh h\u1ea1n h\u1eb9p kh\u00f4ng cho ph\u00e9p b\u1ea1n th\u1ef1c hi\u1ec7n m\u1ed9t \u1ea5n ph\u1ea9m mang t\u00ednh to\u00e0n c\u1ea7u, v\u00ed d\u1ee5 nh\u01b0 t\u1ea1p ch\u00ed Time, th\u00ec Web l\u00e0 gi\u1ea3i ph\u00e1p t\u1ed1t nh\u1ea5t cho b\u1ea1n. Tr\u00ean Web, th\u00f4ng tin c\u1ee7a b\u1ea1n c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 \u0111\u1ebfn v\u1edbi t\u1ea5t c\u1ea3 m\u1ecdi ng\u01b0\u1eddi.

\u2022
Web server l\u00e0 m\u00e1y ch\u1ee7 trong \u0111\u00f3 c\u00f3 ch\u1ee9a th\u00f4ng tin d\u01b0\u1edbi d\u1ea1ng trang Web. C\u00e1c Web server
\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c n\u1ed1i v\u1edbi nhau tr\u00ean Internet, m\u1ed7i server c\u00f3 \u0111\u1ecba ch\u1ec9 ri\u00eang, b\u1eaft \u0111\u1ea7u b\u1eb1ng:
\u2022
http://...
Web server c\u00f2n c\u00f3 t\u00ean g\u1ecdi l\u00e0 Web site - v\u1ecb tr\u00ed Web.
\u2022
N\u00e0o, c\u00f2n \u0111i\u1ec1u g\u00ec b\u1ea1n mu\u1ed1n n\u00f3i? b\u1ea1n c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 cho c\u1ea3 th\u1ebf gi\u1edbi bi\u1ebft.
INTERNET C\u00d3 T\u1eea \u0110\u00c2U V\u00c0 KHI N\u00c0O...?
Nh\u1eefng c\u1ed9t m\u1ed1c quan tr\u1ecdng trong qu\u00e1 tr\u00ecnh h\u00ecnh th\u00e0nh v\u00e0 ph\u00e1t tri\u1ec3n Internet
Th\u1eadp ni\u00ean 1950
1957

* Li\u00ean X\u00f4 ph\u00f3ng v\u1ec7 tinh nh\u00e2n t\u1ea1o \u0111\u1ea7u ti\u00ean Sputnik. Hoa K\u1ef3 \u0111\u00e1p l\u1ea1i b\u1eb1ng c\u00e1ch th\u00e0nh l\u1eadp C\u01a1 quan D\u1ef1 \u00e1n Nghi\u00ean c\u1ee9u Cao c\u1ea5p (Advanced Research Projects Agency - ARPA) thu\u1ed9c B\u1ed9 qu\u1ed1c ph\u00f2ng M\u1ef9 (DOD) nh\u1eb1m \u0111\u01b0a khoa h\u1ecdc v\u00e0 k\u1ef9 thu\u1eadt v\u00e0o qu\u00e2n \u0111\u1ed9i.

Th\u1eadp ni\u00ean 1960
1962
* Paul Baran, RAND: "M\u1ea1ng truy\u1ec1n th\u00f4ng ph\u00e2n t\u00e1n" - M\u1ea1ng chuy\u1ec3n m\u1ea1ch g\u00f3i (Packet-
switching - PS); kh\u00f4ng c\u00f2n m\u1ed9t \u0111i\u1ec3m d\u1eebng duy nh\u1ea5t n\u1eefa.
1965

* ARPA t\u00e0i tr\u1ee3 nghi\u00ean c\u1ee9u v\u1ec1 m\u1ea1ng c\u1ed9ng t\u00e1c g\u1ed3m c\u00e1c m\u00e1y t\u00ednh chia s\u1ebb theo th\u1eddi gian. - TX-2
c\u1ee7a MIT Lincoln Lab v\u00e0 Q-32 c\u1ee7a h\u00e3ng System Development Corporation (Santa Monica,
California) \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c n\u1ed1i tr\u1ef1c ti\u1ebfp v\u1edbi nhau (kh\u00f4ng d\u00f9ng chuy\u1ec3n m\u1ea1ch g\u00f3i).

1967

* H\u1ed9i ngh\u1ecb ACM v\u1ec1 nh\u1eefng Nguy\u00ean l\u00fd Ho\u1ea1t \u0111\u1ed9ng - K\u1ebf ho\u1ea1ch gi\u1edbi thi\u1ec7u m\u1ea1ng chuy\u1ec3n m\u1ea1ch
g\u00f3i. - T\u00e0i li\u1ec7u \u0111\u1ea7u ti\u00ean v\u1ec1 ARPANET do Lawrence G. Roberts xu\u1ea5t b\u1ea3n.
* Ph\u00f2ng th\u00ed nghi\u1ec7m V\u1eadt l\u00fd Qu\u1ed1c gia (NPL) \u1edf Midlesex, Anh ph\u00e1t tri\u1ec3n m\u1ea1ng d\u1eef li\u1ec7u NPL
Data Network do D. W. Davies ph\u1ee5 tr\u00e1ch.

1968
* M\u1ea1ng PS \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c gi\u1edbi thi\u1ec7u cho ARPA.
1969
* DOD \u1ee7y nhi\u1ec7m ARPANET nghi\u00ean c\u1ee9u l\u0129nh v\u1ef1c m\u1ea1ng.

Activity (4)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
1 thousand reads
Hai Pham Van liked this
Duc Vu liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->