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ISDN

ISDN

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Published by api-3766251

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Published by: api-3766251 on Oct 16, 2008
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03/18/2014

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1. GI\u1edaI THI\u1ec6U
1.1. C\u00e1c \u0111\u1eb7c \u0111i\u1ec3m c\u1ee7a m\u1ea1ng vi\u1ec5n th\u00f4ng ng\u00e0y nay

Hi\u1ec7n nay, c\u00e1c m\u1ea1ng vi\u1ec5n th\u00f4ng hi\u1ec7n t\u1ea1i c\u00f3 \u0111\u1eb7c \u0111i\u1ec3m chung l\u00e0 t\u1ed3n t\u1ea1i m\u1ed9t c\u00e1ch ri\u00eang r\u1ebd, \u1ee9ng
v\u1edbi m\u1ed7i lo\u1ea1i d\u1ecbch v\u1ee5 th\u00f4ng tin l\u1ea1i c\u00f3 \u00edt nh\u1ea5t m\u1ed9t lo\u1ea1i m\u1ea1ng vi\u1ec5n th\u00f4ng ri\u00eang bi\u1ec7t \u0111\u1ec3 ph\u1ee5c v\u1ee5
d\u1ecbch v\u1ee5 \u0111\u00f3. Th\u00ed d\u1ee5:

\u2022
M\u1ea1ng Telex: d\u00f9ng \u0111\u1ec3 g\u1eedi c\u00e1c b\u1ee9c \u0111i\u1ec7n d\u01b0\u1edbi d\u1ea1ng c\u00e1c k\u00fd t\u1ef1 \u0111\u00e3 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c m\u00e3 ho\u00e1 b\u1eb1ng m\u00e3 5
bit (m\u00e3 Baudot). T\u1ed1c \u0111\u1ed9 truy\u1ec1n r\u1ea5t th\u1ea5p (t\u1eeb 75 t\u1edbi 300 bit/s).
\u2022

M\u1ea1ng \u0111i\u1ec7n tho\u1ea1i c\u00f4ng c\u1ed9ng, c\u00f2n g\u1ecdi l\u00e0 m\u1ea1ng POST (Plain Old Telephone Service): \u1edf \u0111\u00e2y
th\u00f4ng tin ti\u1ebfng n\u00f3i \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c s\u1ed1 ho\u00e1 v\u00e0 chuy\u1ec3n m\u1ea1ch \u1edf h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng chuy\u1ec3n m\u1ea1ch \u0111i\u1ec7n tho\u1ea1i
c\u00f4ng c\u1ed9ng PSTN (Public Swiched Telephone Network).

\u2022

M\u1ea1ng truy\u1ec1n s\u1ed1 li\u1ec7u: bao g\u1ed3m c\u00e1c m\u1ea1ng chuy\u1ec3n m\u1ea1ch g\u00f3i \u0111\u1ec3 trao \u0111\u1ed5i s\u1ed1 li\u1ec7u gi\u1eefa c\u00e1c
m\u00e1y t\u00ednh d\u1ef1a tr\u00ean c\u00e1c giao th\u1ee9c c\u1ee7a X.25 v\u00e0 h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng truy\u1ec1n s\u1ed1 li\u1ec7u chuy\u1ec3n m\u1ea1ch k\u00eanh
d\u1ef1a tr\u00ean c\u00e1c giao th\u1ee9c X.21.

\u2022

C\u00e1c t\u00edn hi\u1ec7u truy\u1ec1n h\u00ecnh c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c truy\u1ec1n theo ba c\u00e1ch: truy\u1ec1n b\u1eb1ng s\u00f3ng v\u00f4 tuy\u1ebfn,
truy\u1ec1n qua h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng m\u1ea1ng truy\u1ec1n h\u00ecnh CATV (Community Antenna TV) b\u1eb1ng c\u00e1p \u0111\u1ed3ng
tr\u1ee5c ho\u1eb7c truy\u1ec1n qua h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng v\u1ec7 tinh, c\u00f2n g\u1ecdi h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng truy\u1ec1n qua h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng v\u1ec7 tinh, c\u00f2n
g\u1ecdi h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng truy\u1ec1n h\u00ecnh tr\u1ef1c ti\u1ebfp DBS (Direct Broadcast System).

\u2022
Trong ph\u1ea1m vi c\u01a1 quan, s\u1ed1 li\u1ec7u gi\u1eefa c\u00e1c m\u00e1y t\u00ednh \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c trao \u0111\u1ed5i th\u00f4ng qua m\u1ea1ng c\u1ee5c b\u1ed9
LAN (Local Area Network) m\u00e0 n\u1ed5i ti\u1ebfng nh\u1ea5t l\u00e0 m\u1ea1ng Ethernet, Token Bus v\u00e0 Token Ring.

M\u1ed7i m\u1ea1ng tr\u00ean \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c thi\u1ebft k\u1ebf cho c\u00e1c d\u1ecbch v\u1ee5 ri\u00eang bi\u1ec7t v\u00e0 kh\u00f4ng th\u1ec3 s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng cho c\u00e1c m\u1ee5c \u0111\u00edch kh\u00e1c. Th\u00ed d\u1ee5, ta kh\u00f4ng th\u1ec3 truy\u1ec1n ti\u1ebfng n\u00f3i qua m\u1ea1ng chuy\u1ec3n m\u1ea1ch g\u00f3i X.25 v\u00ec tr\u1ec5 qua m\u1ea1ng n\u00e0y qu\u00e1 l\u1edbn.

H\u1eadu qu\u1ea3 l\u00e0 hi\u1ec7n nay c\u00f3 r\u1ea5t nhi\u1ec1u lo\u1ea1i m\u1ea1ng kh\u00e1c nhau c\u00f9ng song song t\u1ed3n t\u1ea1i. M\u1ed7i m\u1ea1ng l\u1ea1i
y\u00eau c\u1ea7u ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u00e1p thi\u1ebft k\u1ebf, s\u1ea3n xu\u1ea5t, v\u1eadn h\u00e0nh, b\u1ea3o d\u01b0\u1ee1ng kh\u00e1c nhau. Nh\u01b0 v\u1eady h\u1ec7
th\u1ed1ng m\u1ea1ng vi\u1ec5n th\u00f4ng hi\u1ec7n t\u1ea1i c\u00f3 r\u1ea5t nhi\u1ec1u nh\u01b0\u1ee3c \u0111i\u1ec3m m\u00e0 quan tr\u1ecdng nh\u1ea5t l\u00e0:

\u2022
Ch\u1ec9 truy\u1ec1n \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c c\u00e1c d\u1ecbch v\u1ee5 \u0111\u1ed9c l\u1eadp t\u01b0\u01a1ng \u1ee9ng v\u1edbi t\u1eebng m\u1ea1ng.
\u2022

Thi\u1ebfu m\u1ec1m d\u1ebbo: S\u1ef1 ra \u0111\u1eddi c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c thu\u1eadt to\u00e1n n\u00e9n ti\u1ebfng n\u00f3i, n\u00e9n \u1ea3nh v\u00e0 ti\u1ebfn b\u1ed9 trong
c\u00f4ng ngh\u1ec7 VLSI \u1ea3nh h\u01b0\u1edfng m\u1ea1nh m\u1ebd t\u1edbi t\u1ed1c \u0111\u1ed9 truy\u1ec1n t\u00edn hi\u1ec7u. Ngo\u00e0i ra c\u00f2n c\u00f3 nhi\u1ec1u
d\u1ecbch v\u1ee5 truy\u1ec1n th\u00f4ng trong t\u01b0\u01a1ng lai m\u00e0 hi\u1ec7n nay ch\u01b0a d\u1ef1 \u0111o\u00e1n tr\u01b0\u1edbc \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c, m\u1ed7i lo\u1ea1i d\u1ecbch
v\u1ee5 s\u1ebd c\u00f3 t\u1ed1c \u0111\u1ed9 truy\u1ec1n kh\u00e1c nhau. Ta d\u1ec5 d\u00e0ng nh\u1eadn th\u1ea5y r\u1eb1ng h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng hi\u1ec7n nay r\u1ea5t kh\u00f3
th\u00edch nghi v\u1edbi y\u00eau c\u1ea7u c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c d\u1ecbch v\u1ee5 kh\u00e1c nhau trong t\u01b0\u01a1ng lai.

\u2022
K\u00e9m hi\u1ec7u qu\u1ea3 trong vi\u1ec7c b\u1ea3o d\u01b0\u1ee1ng, v\u1eadn h\u00e0nh c\u0169ng nh\u01b0 vi\u1ec7c s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng t\u00e0i nguy\u00ean. T\u00e0i
nguy\u00ean s\u1eb5n c\u00f3 trong m\u1ed9t m\u1ea1ng kh\u00f4ng th\u1ec3 chia s\u1ebb cho c\u00e1c m\u1ea1ng c\u00f9ng s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng.
1.2. S\u1ef1 ra \u0111\u1eddi c\u1ee7a h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng vi\u1ec5n th\u00f4ng m\u1edbi - B-ISDN
Nh\u01b0 \u0111\u00e3 n\u00eau \u1edf tr\u00ean, y\u00eau c\u1ea7u c\u00f3 m\u1ed9t m\u1ea1ng vi\u1ec5n th\u00f4ng duy nh\u1ea5t ng\u00e0y c\u00e0ng tr\u1edf n\u00ean b\u1ee9c thi\u1ebft,
ch\u1ee7 y\u1ebfu l\u00e0 do c\u00e1c nguy\u00ean nh\u00e2n sau:
\u2022
C\u00e1c y\u00eau c\u1ea7u d\u1ecbch v\u1ee5 b\u0103ng r\u1ed9ng \u0111ang t\u0103ng l\u00ean.
\u2022
C\u00e1c k\u1ef9 thu\u1eadt x\u1eed l\u00fd t\u00edn hi\u1ec7u, chuy\u1ec3n m\u1ea1ch, truy\u1ec1n d\u1eabn \u1edf t\u1ed1c \u0111\u1ed9 cao (c\u1ee1 kho\u1ea3ng v\u00e0i tr\u0103m
Mbit/s t\u1edbi v\u00e0i Gbit/s) \u0111\u00e3 tr\u1edf th\u00e0nh hi\u1ec7n th\u1ef1c.
\u2022
Ti\u1ebfn b\u1ed9 v\u1ec1 kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng x\u1eed l\u00fd \u1ea3nh v\u00e0 s\u1ed1 li\u1ec7u.
\u2022
S\u1ef1 ph\u00e1t tri\u1ec3n c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c \u1ee9ng d\u1ee5ng ph\u1ea7n m\u1ec1m trong l\u0129nh v\u1ef1c tin h\u1ecdc v\u00e0 vi\u1ec5n th\u00f4ng.
\u2022

S\u1ef1 c\u1ea7n thi\u1ebft ph\u1ea3i t\u1ed5 h\u1ee3p c\u00e1c d\u1ecbch v\u1ee5 ph\u1ee5 thu\u1ed9c l\u1eabn nhau \u1edf chuy\u1ec3n m\u1ea1ch k\u00eanh v\u00e0 chuy\u1ec3n
m\u1ea1ch g\u00f3i v\u00e0o m\u1ed9t m\u1ea1ng b\u0103ng r\u1ed9ng duy nh\u1ea5t. So v\u1edbi c\u00e1c m\u1ea1ng kh\u00e1c, d\u1ecbch v\u1ee5 t\u1ed5 h\u1ee3p v\u00e0
m\u1ea1ng t\u1ed5 h\u1ee3p c\u00f3 nhi\u1ec1u \u01b0u \u0111i\u1ec3m v\u1ec1 m\u1eb7t kinh t\u1ebf, ph\u00e1t tri\u1ec3n, th\u1ef1c hi\u1ec7n, v\u1eadn h\u00e0nh v\u00e0 b\u1ea3o
d\u01b0\u1ee1ng.

\u2022
S\u1ef1 c\u1ea7n thi\u1ebft ph\u1ea3i tho\u1ea3 m\u00e3n t\u00ednh m\u1ec1m d\u1ebbo cho c\u00e1c y\u00eau c\u1ea7u v\u1ec1 ph\u00eda ng\u01b0\u1eddi s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng c\u0169ng
nh\u01b0 ng\u01b0\u1eddi qu\u1ea3n tr\u1ecb m\u1ea1ng (v\u1ec1 m\u1eb7t t\u1ed1c \u0111\u1ed9 truy\u1ec1n, ch\u1ea5t l\u01b0\u1ee3ng d\u1ecbch v\u1ee5 .v.v.).
Khuy\u1ebfn ngh\u1ecb ITU-T I.121 \u0111\u01b0a ra t\u1ed5ng quan v\u1ec1 kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng c\u1ee7a B-ISDN nh\u01b0 sau:
M\u1ea1ng t\u1ed5 h\u1ee3p d\u1ecbch v\u1ee5 s\u1ed1 b\u0103ng r\u1ed9ng (Broadband Integrated Services Digital
Network - B-ISDN) cung c\u1ea5p c\u00e1c cu\u1ed9c n\u1ed1i th\u00f4ng qua chuy\u1ec3n m\u1ea1ch, c\u00e1c

cu\u1ed9c n\u1ed1i c\u1ed1 \u0111\u1ecbnh (Permanent) ho\u1eb7c b\u00e1n c\u1ed1 \u0111\u1ecbnh (Semi-Permanent), c\u00e1c
cu\u1ed9c n\u1ed1i t\u1eeb \u0111i\u1ec3m t\u1edbi \u0111i\u1ec3m t\u1edbi \u0111i\u1ec3m ho\u1eb7c t\u1eeb \u0111i\u1ec3m t\u1edbi nhi\u1ec1u \u0111i\u1ec3m v\u00e0 cung c\u1ea5p
c\u00e1c d\u1ecbch v\u1ee5 y\u00eau c\u1ea7u, c\u00e1c d\u1ecbch v\u1ee5 d\u00e0nh tr\u01b0\u1edbc ho\u1eb7c c\u00e1c d\u1ecbch v\u1ee5 y\u00eau c\u1ea7u c\u1ed1
\u0111\u1ecbnh. Cu\u1ed9c n\u1ed1i trong B-ISDN ph\u1ee5c v\u1ee5 cho c\u1ea3 c\u00e1c d\u1ecbch v\u1ee5 chuy\u1ec3n m\u1ea1ch
k\u00eanh, chuy\u1ec3n m\u1ea1ch g\u00f3i theo ki\u1ec3u \u0111a ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ti\u1ec7n (Multimedia), \u0111\u01a1n ph\u01b0\u01a1ng
ti\u1ec7n (Monomedia), theo ki\u1ec3u h\u01b0\u1edbng li\u00ean k\u1ebft (Connection-Oriented) ho\u1eb7c
kh\u00f4ng li\u00ean k\u1ebft (Connectionless) v\u00e0 theo c\u1ea5u h\u00ecnh \u0111\u01a1n h\u01b0\u1edbng ho\u1eb7c \u0111a
h\u01b0\u1edbng.

B-ISDN l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t m\u1ea1ng th\u00f4ng minh c\u00f3 kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng cung c\u1ea5p c\u00e1c d\u1ecbch v\u1ee5 c\u1ea3i ti\u1ebfn,
cung c\u1ea5p c\u00e1c c\u00f4ng c\u1ee5 b\u1ea3o d\u01b0\u1ee1ng v\u00e0 v\u1eadn h\u00e0nh (OAM), \u0111i\u1ec1u khi\u1ec3n v\u00e0 qu\u1ea3n
l\u00fd m\u1ea1ng r\u1ea5t hi\u1ec7u qu\u1ea3.

2. KH\u00c1I NI\u1ec6M C\u01a0 B\u1ea2N V\u1ec0 ATM
2.1. \u0110\u1ecbnh ngh\u0129a v\u00e0 c\u00e1c \u0111\u1eb7c \u0111i\u1ec3m ch\u00ednh c\u1ee7a ATM
B-ISDN theo ITU-T d\u1ef1a tr\u00ean c\u01a1 s\u1edf ki\u1ec3u truy\u1ec1n kh\u00f4ng \u0111\u1ed3ng b\u1ed9 ATM (Asynchronous Transfer
Mode). Nh\u01b0 v\u1eady ATM s\u1ebd l\u00e0 n\u1ec1n t\u1ea3ng c\u1ee7a B-ISDN trong t\u01b0\u01a1ng lai.

Trong ki\u1ec3u truy\u1ec1n kh\u00f4ng \u0111\u1ed3ng b\u1ed9, thu\u1eadt ng\u1eef "truy\u1ec1n" bao g\u1ed3m c\u1ea3 l\u0129nh v\u1ef1c truy\u1ec1n d\u1eabn v\u00e0
chuy\u1ec3n m\u1ea1ch, do \u0111\u00f3 "d\u1ea1ng truy\u1ec1n" \u00e1m ch\u1ec9 c\u1ea3 ch\u1ebf \u0111\u1ed9 truy\u1ec1n d\u1eabn v\u00e0 chuy\u1ec3n m\u1ea1ch th\u00f4ng tin
trong m\u1ea1ng.

Thu\u1eadt ng\u1eef "kh\u00f4ng \u0111\u1ed3ng b\u1ed9" gi\u1ea3i th\u00edch cho m\u1ed9t ki\u1ec3u truy\u1ec1n trong \u0111\u00f3 c\u00e1c g\u00f3i trong c\u00f9ng m\u1ed9t
cu\u1ed9c n\u1ed1i c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 l\u1eb7p l\u1ea1i m\u1ed9t c\u00e1ch b\u1ea5t b\u00ecnh th\u01b0\u1eddng nh\u01b0 l\u00fac ch\u00fang \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c t\u1ea1o ra theo y\u00eau c\u1ea7u c\u1ee5
th\u1ec3 m\u00e0 kh\u00f4ng theo chu k\u1ef3.

\u0110\u1ec3 minh h\u1ecda, h\u00ecnh 1.1 v\u00e0 1.2 bi\u1ec3u di\u1ec5n s\u1ef1 kh\u00e1c nhau gi\u1eefa d\u1ea1ng truy\u1ec1n \u0111\u1ed3ng b\u1ed9 v\u00e0 d\u1ea1ng
truy\u1ec1n kh\u00f4ng \u0111\u1ed3ng b\u1ed9. Trong d\u1ea1ng truy\u1ec1n \u0111\u1ed3ng b\u1ed9 STM (Synchronous Transfer Mode), c\u00e1c
ph\u1ea7n t\u1eed s\u1ed1 li\u1ec7u t\u01b0\u01a1ng \u1ee9ng v\u1edbi k\u00eanh \u0111\u00e3 cho \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c nh\u1eadn bi\u1ebft b\u1edfi v\u1ecb tr\u00ed c\u1ee7a n\u00f3 trong khung

truy\u1ec1n (h\u00ecnh 1.1) trong khi \u1edf ATM, c\u00e1c g\u00f3i thu\u1ed9c v\u1ec1 m\u1ed9t cu\u1ed9c n\u1ed1i l\u1ea1i t\u01b0\u01a1ng \u1ee9ng v\u1edbi c\u00e1c k\u00eanh
\u1ea3o c\u1ee5 th\u1ec3 v\u00e0 c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 xu\u1ea5t hi\u1ec7n t\u1ea1i b\u1ea5t k\u1ef3 v\u1ecb tr\u00ed n\u00e0o (h\u00ecnh 1.2).
ATM c\u00f2n c\u00f3 hai \u0111\u1eb7c \u0111i\u1ec3m quan tr\u1ecdng:
Th\u1ee9 nh\u1ea5t, ATM s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng c\u00e1c g\u00f3i c\u00f3 k\u00edch th\u01b0\u1edbc nh\u1ecf v\u00e0 c\u1ed1 \u0111\u1ecbnh g\u1ecdi l\u00e0 c\u00e1c t\u1ebf b\u00e0o ATM (ATM
Cell), c\u00e1c t\u1ebf b\u00e0o nh\u1ecf c\u00f9ng v\u1edbi t\u1ed1c \u0111\u1ed9 truy\u1ec1n l\u1edbn s\u1ebd l\u00e0m cho tr\u1ec5 truy\u1ec1n v\u00e0 bi\u1ebfn \u0111\u1ed9ng tr\u1ec5
(Delay Jitter) gi\u1ea3m \u0111\u1ee7 nh\u1ecf \u0111\u1ed1i v\u1edbi c\u00e1c d\u1ecbch v\u1ee5 th\u1eddi gian th\u1ef1c, ngo\u00e0i ra k\u00edch th\u01b0\u1edbc nh\u1ecf c\u0169ng
s\u1ebd t\u1ea1o \u0111i\u1ec1u ki\u1ec7n cho vi\u1ec7c h\u1ee3p k\u00eanh \u1edf t\u1ed1c \u0111\u1ed9 cao \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c d\u1ec5 d\u00e0ng h\u01a1n.

Th\u1ee9 hai, ATM c\u00f2n c\u00f3 m\u1ed9t \u0111\u1eb7c \u0111i\u1ec3m r\u1ea5t quan tr\u1ecdng l\u00e0 kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng nh\u00f3m m\u1ed9t v\u00e0i k\u00eanh \u1ea3o
(Virtual Channel) th\u00e0nh m\u1ed9t \u0111\u01b0\u1eddng \u1ea3o (Virtual Path), nh\u1eb1m gi\u00fap cho vi\u1ec7c \u0111\u1ecbnh tuy\u1ebfn \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c
d\u1ec5 d\u00e0ng.

2.2. C\u00e1c l\u0129nh v\u1ef1c c\u00f4ng ngh\u1ec7 m\u1edbi quy\u1ebft \u0111\u1ecbnh s\u1ef1 ra \u0111\u1eddi v\u00e0 ph\u00e1t tri\u1ec3n c\u1ee7a ATM
C\u00f3 hai y\u1ebfu t\u1ed1 \u1ea3nh h\u01b0\u1edfng t\u1edbi ATM, \u0111\u00f3 l\u00e0:
\u2022
S\u1ef1 ph\u00e1t tri\u1ec3n nhanh ch\u00f3ng c\u1ee7a c\u00f4ng ngh\u1ec7 b\u00e1n d\u1eabn c\u0169ng nh\u01b0 c\u00f4ng ngh\u1ec7 quang \u0111i\u1ec7n t\u1eed.
\u2022
S\u1ef1 ph\u00e1t tri\u1ec3n c\u00e1c \u00fd t\u01b0\u1edfng m\u1edbi v\u1ec1 kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng.
2.2.1. C\u00e1c ti\u1ebfn b\u1ed9 v\u1ec1 m\u1eb7t c\u00f4ng ngh\u1ec7
C\u00f4ng ngh\u1ec7 b\u00e1n d\u1eabn:

C\u00f4ng ngh\u1ec7 CMOS l\u00e0 c\u00f4ng ngh\u1ec7 r\u1ea5t c\u00f3 tri\u1ec3n v\u1ecdng b\u1edfi \u0111\u1ed9 t\u00edch h\u1ee3p l\u1edbn, t\u1ed1c \u0111\u1ed9 cao (c\u1ee1 v\u00e0i
tr\u0103m Mbit/s t\u1edbi v\u00e0i Gbit/s), \u0111\u1ed9 r\u1ed9ng b\u0103ng truy\u1ec1n l\u1edbn, k\u00edch th\u01b0\u1edbc nh\u1ecf, \u0111\u1ed9 m\u1ec1m d\u1ebbo c\u01a1 h\u1ecdc
cao, tr\u00e1nh \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c nhi\u1ec5u c\u1ee7a tr\u01b0\u1eddng \u0111i\u1ec7n t\u1eed, x\u00e1c su\u1ea5t truy\u1ec1n l\u1ed7i th\u1ea5p v\u00e0 kh\u00f4ng c\u00f3 nhi\u1ec5u xuy\u00ean
\u00e2m.

2.2.2. C\u00e1c \u00fd t\u01b0\u1edfng m\u1edbi v\u1ec1 kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng

C\u00e1c quan \u0111i\u1ec3m m\u1edbi v\u1ec1 h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ph\u00e1t tri\u1ec3n m\u1ea1nh m\u1ebd trong nh\u1eefng n\u0103m g\u1ea7n \u0111\u00e2y, \u0111\u00f3 l\u00e0
h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng ph\u1ea3i c\u00f3 \u0111\u1ed9 m\u1ec1m d\u1ebbo th\u00edch h\u1ee3p, \u0111\u1ed9 r\u1ed9ng b\u0103ng c\u1ee7a h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng ph\u1ea3i tu\u1ef3 thu\u1ed9c v\u00e0o y\u00eau
c\u1ea7u c\u1ee7a t\u1eebng d\u1ecbch v\u1ee5 c\u1ee5 th\u1ec3, c\u00e1c d\u1ecbch v\u1ee5 th\u1eddi gian th\u1ef1c \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c truy\u1ec1n theo ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u00e1p
chuy\u1ec3n m\u1ea1ch g\u00f3i.

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