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Sarha Moore M a Dissertation

Sarha Moore M a Dissertation

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Published by Sarah Moore
The Doom of the Flattened Supertonic: The 'other leading note' in Turkish makam, Indian
raga, klezmer and heavy metal musics
The Doom of the Flattened Supertonic: The 'other leading note' in Turkish makam, Indian
raga, klezmer and heavy metal musics

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Published by: Sarah Moore on Oct 16, 2011
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The Doom of the Flattened Supertonic:The
other leading note
in Turkish makam, Indianraga, klezmer and heavy metal musics
 By Sarha MooreThis dissertation is submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of M.A. in World Music Studies, Department of Music, University of Sheffield,
30
th
June 2008
 
Abstract
This dissertation explores the use and meaning of the flattened supertonic in four  genres: Turkish art music, ragas of the Indian subcontinent, Jewish klezmer music,and heavy metal music. My aim is to research the particular significance of the flattened supertonic within each of these traditions, and to compare my findings withinthe wider fields of acoustic theory and Orientalism.
 
This raises
 
questions about scale note choice in relationship to culture and 
 I find that within these four genres the use of the flattened supertonic is an indicator of  political, religious, cultural and social identity. Each tradition maintains a uniquerelationship to the flattened supertonic: in Turkey the focus is on its microtonal differences from the whole tone interval; in Indian music it is used in
all
ragas to be played at twilight (dawn and dusk); in klezmer music the
Ahava Rabba
mode is crucial to the genre
; and in heavy metal music the flattened supertonic is emphasized for dissonant and ominous effect. All four genres share a concept of musical tonic, and because of the attraction tothis tonic the flattened supertonic carries tension. It can be considered a ‘leading note’.Changes have been made to the use of the flattened supertonic as a result of attitudes towards modernisation, Westernisation, and personal identity: in the Indian subcontinent its use has been reinforced by Nationalist movements; in Turkey and  Israel the opposite has happened, with such music being regarded as backward looking; heavy metal followers change their style with each generation, oftenbecoming more dissonant with more use of the flattened supertonic
.
There is a complex and subtle character to
the use of this note. In the four musics studied it is integrated and a valued part of identity: the ‘other leading note’, falling instead of rising.
 
Table of Contents
Abstract2Table of Contents3List of Figures
5
CD contents
6
DVD contents
7
Acknowledgements
8
Introduction9Chapter 1: Turkish Art Music
14
1.1 Prevalence:
Makam
and the
 Koma
16
1.2 Meaning: Love and Melancholia
21
1.3 Change: The Demise of the Ottoman Empire
24
1.4 Conclusion
27
Chapter 2: Ragas of India and Pakistan
28
2.1Prevalence: Dawn and Dus
29
2.2Meaning: Tension, Relaxation and Sadness
31
2.3Meaning: Interpretation
34
2.4Change: Bollywood Music and World Music
36
2.5Conclusion
39

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