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dg nigeria case study

dg nigeria case study

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Inaugural IEEE PES 2005 Conference and Exposition in Africa
Durban, South Africa, 11-15 July 2005
A Methodology for Evaluating and Integrating DG Services into a Restructured
Electrical Power Grid
Innocent E. Davidson

School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of KwaZulu-Natal
Durban, 4041, South Africa
Phone: +27-31-260-1246, Fax: +27-31-260-2727, Email: Davidsoni@ukzn.ac.za

Abstract \u2013 Power sector deregulation is a global phenomena but driven locally by a mix of complex forces peculiar to each country. Using a case-study example, this paper evaluates distribution (embedded) generation as an option for developing economies to ensure system stability and improve reliability.

A methodology for evaluating distributed generation (DG) services is proposed and a framework for integrating them into the restructured power system is presented and discussed.

I. INTRODUCTION

Nigeria with an estimated population of 126.9 million people, surface area of 923800 square kilometers, a GDP of US$41.2 billion is the largest electricity market in Africa. The electric power industry is the largest single industry typically spanning much of the geographical area and serving all sectors of the economy. NEPA the state-owned monopoly utility is undergoing rapid restructuring and privatization. It maintains a varied portfolio of plants: oil fired, gas turbine, coal fired and hydroelectric power as shown in Table 1.

Table 1: NEPA\u2019s Power Stations
Name
of
Station

Type
of
Station

Sets
(MW)

Total
Capacity
(MW)

Year of
Operation
Kainji

Jebba
Shiroro
Sapele

Afam I,
(II\u2013IV)
Delta
(I - III)
Delta
IV
Oji
Egbin
Ijora
Calabar
EPP
IPP

Hydro

Hydro
Hydro
Gas
Turbine
Gas
Turbine
Gas
Turbine
Gas
Turbine
Coal
Oil
Oil
Diesel
CCGT
CCGT

4 x 80
2 x 100
2 x 120
6 x 90
6 x 100
6 x 120
4 x 75
1 x 20

6 x 100
4 x -
6 x 220
2 x 30

320
200
240
540
600
720
300
20
690
280

600
-1320
60

230
30.5

1968
1970
1978
1985
1990
1980
1985
>1980

1970+
1991
1956
1986
2002
2002
===========================================
Total Installed Capacity
5952.5 MW
Total Available Capacity
2597.1 MW
Total Generation from EPP/IPP
60.5 MW
=====================================================
Fig.1. Map of Nigeria

The country has an installed capacity of about 6.0GW and an average generating capacity of 3500 MW. Several isolated power stations exist and serve major cities, such as Calabar, Kaduna, Makurdi, Maiduguri, Minna and Suleja. These diesel units operate off-grid to serve specified loads. The generation pool comprises of 32% hydro, 44% gas, 23% oil, while diesel and small power producers (SPP) account for 1%.

The transmission system is made up of 5000 km of 330 kV lines, regional lines amount to 6000 km at 132 kV, while the 415 V reticulation network is 55143 km long. Nigeria\u2019s low electricity consumption of 85kWh per capita [1], served mainly by NEPA, makes it a highly under served market. Distributed (embedded) generation has been practiced in Nigeria but in a hap-hazard manner.

DG schemes are small modular generating machines ranging from kilowatts to few megawatts capacity, typically kilowatts up to 10 MW power plants at or near the loads, operating in a stand-alone mode or connected to a grid at the distribution or sub-transmission level [2, 3]. Table 2 shows a number of electric power generation technologies.

66
0-7803-9327-9/05/$20.00 \u00a92005 IEEE

DG schemes may harness alternative energy resources such as biomass, wind, ocean tides and waves, solar, and geothermal. Small power sources have been developed and employed for industrial, commercial, space, underwater, and biomedical applications. Another area for DG application is in remote rural areas far removed from grid infrastructure. Here, integrated renewable energy systems (IRES) may be suited for these situations.

Table II: Power Conversion Technologies
Item
Description
1.
Coal fired steam plant
2.
Oil fired steam plant
3.
Combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT)
4.
Micro combined heat and power
5.
Hydropower
6.
Micro hydro
7.
Hydro pumped storage
8.
Tidal power and ocean flows
9.
Conventional nuclear (AGR, PWR)
10.
Pebble bed Modular Reactor (PMR)
11.
Onshore wind
12.
Offshore wind
13.
Land-fill gases
14.
Municipal incineration
15.
Biomass (waste organic matter)
16.
Diesel (Standby engine driven generator sets)
17.
Photovoltaic/solar thermal-electric conversion
18.
Electrochemical storage (Fuel cells/hydrogen)
19.
Geothermal

Since DG schemes are located on-site or nearby the location where the energy is used, they usually operate at the low voltage (i.e. 11kV and 33kV) supply chain of bulk electric power transport infrastructure. Their on-site location provides the opportunity for greater local control and more efficient utilization to boost efficiency and reliability [4].

II. NIGERIA\u2019S DEREGULATION PROGRAM

The global recognition of the importance of involving the private sector in national infrastructure development has encouraged reform of the electricity supply industry (ESI). Market liberalization and industry privatization trend is not limited to the electricity industry, but also applies to the communications, petroleum, defense and other industries in many countries.

The poor performance of NEPA in providing reliable electricity supplies has influenced the decision of government to deregulate the industry by unbundling the single vertically integrated organization into three

sectors,
namely:
generation,

transmission, distribution/supply sectors. Constituent companies will then be privatized and allowed to operate under competitive market principles [5]. Figure 2 shows the proposed structure of the unbundled industry.

GENERATION
TRANSMISSION
DISTRIBUTION
Specialisation encouraged by
competition & regulation emphasising
different key success factors
GENERATION
TRANSMISSION
DISTRIBUTION
SUPPLY
Competitive
Regulated
Regulated
Competitive
CURRENT
INDUSTRY
STRUCTURE

PROPOSED
INDUSTRY
STRUCTURE

ONE VERTICALY INTEGRATED
ORGANISATION - NEPA
SPECIALISED
ORGANISATIONS
Industry Regulator to ensure fair play
Fig.2. Proposed Structure of Nigeria\u2019s Deregulated ESI

Under this structure, generating companies will compete with each other (that is horizontal unbundling) to export power to a single company controlling the high voltage transmission network which will then supply electricity to distribution companies controlling the low voltage network in their franchise areas of the country. An industry regulator will be setup to have oversight over the activities of industry participants to ensure fairness in all their operations and protect consumers\u2019 interests. The transmission and distribution sectors will operate as monopoly business in designated franchise areas, with strong oversight from the regulator. This arrangement is expected to transform the ESI into an effective, innovative and profitable industry.

III.
BENEFITS OF EMBEDDED GENERATION

A factor in favor of distribution generation especially in developing economies like Nigeria is the unreliability of monopoly electric utilities to meet the electricity demand by large industrial customers\u2019 [6]. Hence distribution or small industrial (i.e. embedded) generation should be encouraged, because of their benefit to industrial customers, whilst complementing the activities of NEPA\u2019s electricity distribution service. The benefits brought about by DG to such large industrial customers include [7]:

\ue001\ue000Provision of a stand-alone power supply in areas where
transmission and distribution infrastructure does not exist
or are grossly inadequate.
\ue001\ue000Reliability of electricity supplies, which is critical for the
conduct of economic activities.
\ue001\ue000Provision of backup and other ancillary services in times
of stress on the distribution networks.
\ue001\ue000Provision of necessary power quality needed in industrial
applications that are dependent upon sensitive electronic
instruments and controls.
67
\ue001\ue000Efficiency gains in transmission for on-site applications
which minimizes line losses and voltage sag.
\ue001\ue000Alleviation of congestion on the distribution network
through peak load shaving.
IV.
DG SERVICES AND STANDARDIZATION

Distribution generation in Nigeria is generally a point-to- point radial connection from the generating machine straight on to the load centre. Examples are major cities such as Calabar, Kaduna, Makurdi, Maiduguri, Minna and Suleja. NEPA\u2019s electricity distribution service to consumers cover a wider geographical area involving both radial and mesh networks used to supply electricity to several customers on the low voltage end of a bulk electricity delivery industry value chain.

Figure 3 shows an application of embedded generation interconnected with the grid to serve large customers and provide grid support.

Domestic customers and small businesses with
Domestic Generator can alsogenerate electricity
which flows back onto the Distribution network

Distributed Generation
(e.g. wind turbine)

Industries with CHP
generate electricity which
flows back to the network

CHP Gen
Distribution Network
Transmission Network
Flow from, and to the network
Flow from the network
Fig.3. DG Operating Environment

Such innovative deployment of typical DG technologies can serve the coastal regions like Lagos, Warri and Port Harcourt where wind energy can be harnessed. Major manufacturing and mining cities such as Kaduna and Jos in the interior as well as Lagos can benefit from CHP technologies as well as surrounding settlements. In Nigeria, small-scale on-site distribution or embedded generators have been established along side NEPA\u2019s 11 to 33kV distribution networks. These small generators (mainly diesel or furnace oil-fired) supply power to industries and in some cases communities/estates attached to them, through indigenous private distribution networks. NEPA has not taken advantage of the opportunities provided by DG to alleviate the problem of power shortage especially in rural electrification program in the country. Over emphasis on costly conventional large centralized electricity supply facilities has deprived many customers the benefits that DG located in their area could provide.

Under deregulation, the delivery network is the vehicle through which competition occurs. The stronger the network, the less incidents of line congestion, the easier it will be to site generating plants across the system. The dispersal of generation across the network will facilitate competition in the generation sector.

In liberalized electricity markets, four key strategic issues relating to distributed generation (DG) are high on the agenda of any distribution company [8], namely:

\ue001\ue000How much distributed generation will appear in the
distribution networks?
\ue001\ue000What effect will the DG have on the technical
performance of the network?
\ue001\ue000What effect will the DG have on the financial
performance of the utility?
\ue001\ue000What changes in technical design or commercial practice
will be effective within a distribution utility DG strategy?

For Nigeria, the on-going ESI restructuring process needs to address pertinent issues regarding DG and their impact on the operations of local Distribution Network Operators (DNO):

\ue001\ue000Will the DNO created from NEPA to serve franchise

areas have the monopoly status as the sole provider of electricity in their region, especially in rural areas, and are they required to oversee the operations of DG connected to their networks, as they affect their wider network system integrity? The main concern here will be how to stop DNO abusing their monopoly power.

\ue001\ue000DG owners are also concerned about reliability of DNO

networks after deregulation and privatization, taking cue from the current performance of NEPA\u2019s distribution sector [9].

\ue001\ue000What impact will DG connected to the local distribution
network have on network reliability?
\ue001\ue000Lastly, the issue of remuneration for services provided by
DG to support local DNO.

To encourage investment and promote competition, the following is proposed: introducing DG into the power planning mix and load forecasting, the standardization of network requirements (DG) and open access to the network. Both the DNO and DG operating and maintaining electricity distribution service in their franchise area must be accountable to the customers and the industry regulator. These should be clearly spelt out in the policy, which should undergo development as the new era unfolds.

It should be noted that there will be financial, geographical and environmental constraints on quick capacity expansion of generation, transmission and distribution facilities which

68

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