Certain spelling rules must be followed to form gerunds:a.For most verbs, a gerund is formed by adding –ing to the simple form of the verb.
, read –
b.If the simple form of the verb ends in a single “e,” a gerund is formed by droppingthe “e” and adding –ing.
, drive –
c.If the simple form of the verb ends in “ie,” a gerund is formed by changing the“ie” to “y” and adding –ing.
: tie – t
, vie –
d.If the simple form of a one-syllable verb ends with a single vowel + consonant, agerund is formed by doubling the final consonant and adding –ing.
, swim –
e.If the simple form of a verb with 2 or more syllables ends in a single vowel +consonant, a gerund is formed by doubling the final consonant only if the stress is on thefinal syllable.
: commit –
(stress is on second syllable), combat –
(stress is on first syllable)
Note: The final “l” is doubled in British English (travel – travelling), but not in American English (travel – traveling).f.If the simple form of the verb ends in “x,” “w,” or “z,” the final consonant is
doubled when adding –ing.
, tow – towing, fly –
A gerund can be one word or a phrase.
: I enjoy
. I don’t enjoy
painting my house
A gerund is always singular and acts like a noncount noun.
A gerund takes a singular verb and can be replaced by the pronoun
. I enjoy
A gerund can be positive or negative; a negative gerund is formed by adding theword
before the gerund.
every day would be unhealthy for me.
Many verbs are followed by gerunds, but may not be followed by infinitives (suchas appreciate, avoid, consider, delay, deny, dislike, enjoy, finish, go, imagine, keep mind)
Have you considered
a vacation when our class ends?
Many common verbs with prepositions may be followed by a gerund, but not aninfinitive (such as approve of, believe in, look forward to, talk about, think about, worryabout).
Do you ever think about
Many phrases ending in prepositions are
BE + adjective expressions
and may befollowed by a gerund but not an infinitive.
ESL students are accustomed to
The student is nervous about
in front of the class.
Some prepositions that occur with gerunds are frequently found at the beginningor the ending of a sentence (i.e. after, before, besides, by, in, in addition to, instead of,without).
, I like to have a snack.I will read a book instead of
3.POTENTIAL PROBLEMS STUDENTS MAY HAVE
Meaning and Use:
Students may use an infinitive when they ought to use a
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