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24-Substation_control_and_automation

24-Substation_control_and_automation

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Introduction
24.1
Topology and functionality
24.2
Hardware implementation
24.3
Communication protocols
24.4
Substation automation functionality
24.5
System configuration and testing
24.6
Examples of substation automation
24.7
\u2022
2 4
\u2022
Substation Control
and Automation
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24.1 INTRODUCTION

The sometimes complex interlocking and sequence control requirements that are to be found in a substation of any significant size lend themselves naturally to the application of automation. These requirements can be readily expressed in mathematical logic (truth tables, boolean algebra, etc.) and this branch of mathematics is well-suited to the application of computers and associated software. Hence, computers have been applied to the control of electrical networks for many years, and examples of them being applied to substation control/automation were in use in the early 1970\u2019s. The first applications were naturally in the bulk power transmission field, as a natural extension of a trend to centralised control rooms for such systems. The large capital investment in such systems and the consequences of major system disruption made the cost of such schemes justifiable. In the last ten years or so, continuing cost pressures on Utilities and advances in computing power and software have led to the application of computers to substation control/ automation on a much wider basis.

This Chapter outlines the current technology and
provides examples of modern practice in the field.
24.2 TOPOLOGY AND FUNCTIONALITY

The topology of a substation control system is the architecture of the computer system used. The functionality of such a system is the complete set of functions that can be implemented in the control system \u2013 but note that a particular substation may only utilise a subset of the functionality possible.

All computer control systems utilise one of two basic
topologies:
a.centralised
b.distributed
and the basic concepts of each are illustrated in Figure
\u202224 \u2022Substation Control
and Automation
Network Protection & Automation Guide
\u2022 423 \u2022
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24.1. Early examples of substation automation used the centralised concept, due to limitations in technology, both of processor power and communication techniques. Latest examples use a distributed architecture, in that a number of Intelligent Electronic Devices (IED\u2019s) \u2013 such as microprocessor based relays \u2013 may be linked via a multidrop serial link to a local processor. The local processor may control one or more bays in a substation. All of the local processors are, in turn, connected to a Human Machine Interface (or HMI), and possibly also to a local or remote SCADA system for overall network monitoring/control.

24.2.1 System Elements
The main system elements in a substation control system
are:a.IED\u2019s, implementing a specific function or

functions on a circuit or busbar in a substation. The most common example of an IED is a microprocessor based protection relay, but it could also be a microprocessor based measurement device, interface unit to older relays or control, etc.

b.Bay Module (or controller). This device will

normally contain all of the software required for the control and interlocking of a single bay (feeder, etc.) in the substation, and sufficient I/O to interface to all of the required devices required for measurement/protection/control of the bay. The

I/O may include digital and analogue I/O (for interfacing to discrete devices such as CB close/trip circuits, isolator motors, non-microprocessor based protection relays) and communications links (serial or parallel as required) to IED\u2019s

c.Human Machine Interface (HMI). This is the

principal user interface and would normally take the form of a computer. The familiar desktop PC is commonly used, but specialised computers are also possible, while normally unmanned substations may dispense with a permanently installed HMI and rely on operations/maintenance staff bringing a portable computer equipped with the appropriate software with them when attendance is required. It is usual to also provide one or more printers linked to the HMI in order to provide hard-copy records of various kinds (Sequence of Events recorder, alarm list, etc.)

d.A communications bus or busses, linking the

various devices. In a new substation, all of the elements of the automation system will normally use the same bus, or at most two busses, to obtain cost-effectiveness. Where a substation automation system is being retrofitted to an existing substation, it may be necessary to use existing communications busses to communicate with some existing devices. This can lead to a multiplicity of communications busses within the automation system

e.A link to a remote SCADA system. This may be

provided by a dedicated interface unit, be part of the HMI computer or part of an IED. It perhaps may not be provided at all \u2013 though since one of the benefits of substation automation is the capability of remote control/ monitoring, this would be highly unusual. It may only occur during a staged development of an automation scheme at a time when the bay operations are being automated but the substation is still manned, prior to implementing remote control capability

24.2.3 System Requirements
A substation control/automation scheme will normally
be required to possess the following features:
a.control of all substation electrical equipment from
a central point
b.monitoring of all substation electrical equipment
from a central point

c.interface to remote SCADA system
d.control of electrical equipment in a bay locally
e.monitoring of electrical equipment in a bay locally

\u202224 \u2022
SubstationC
ontrolandAu
tomation
Network Protection & Automation Guide
\u2022 424 \u2022
Outstation
(b) Distributed topology
Control Centre
(a) Centralised topology
Outstations
Outstation
Outstation
Outstation
Outstation
Outstation
Control
centre
Control
centre
Control
centre
Figure 24.1: Basic substation automation
system topologies
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