The sometimes complex interlocking and sequence control requirements that are to be found in a substation of any significant size lend themselves naturally to the application of automation. These requirements can be readily expressed in mathematical logic (truth tables, boolean algebra, etc.) and this branch of mathematics is well-suited to the application of computers and associated software. Hence, computers have been applied to the control of electrical networks for many years, and examples of them being applied to substation control/automation were in use in the early 1970\u2019s. The first applications were naturally in the bulk power transmission field, as a natural extension of a trend to centralised control rooms for such systems. The large capital investment in such systems and the consequences of major system disruption made the cost of such schemes justifiable. In the last ten years or so, continuing cost pressures on Utilities and advances in computing power and software have led to the application of computers to substation control/ automation on a much wider basis.
The topology of a substation control system is the architecture of the computer system used. The functionality of such a system is the complete set of functions that can be implemented in the control system \u2013 but note that a particular substation may only utilise a subset of the functionality possible.
24.1. Early examples of substation automation used the centralised concept, due to limitations in technology, both of processor power and communication techniques. Latest examples use a distributed architecture, in that a number of Intelligent Electronic Devices (IED\u2019s) \u2013 such as microprocessor based relays \u2013 may be linked via a multidrop serial link to a local processor. The local processor may control one or more bays in a substation. All of the local processors are, in turn, connected to a Human Machine Interface (or HMI), and possibly also to a local or remote SCADA system for overall network monitoring/control.
functions on a circuit or busbar in a substation. The most common example of an IED is a microprocessor based protection relay, but it could also be a microprocessor based measurement device, interface unit to older relays or control, etc.
normally contain all of the software required for the control and interlocking of a single bay (feeder, etc.) in the substation, and sufficient I/O to interface to all of the required devices required for measurement/protection/control of the bay. The
I/O may include digital and analogue I/O (for interfacing to discrete devices such as CB close/trip circuits, isolator motors, non-microprocessor based protection relays) and communications links (serial or parallel as required) to IED\u2019s
principal user interface and would normally take the form of a computer. The familiar desktop PC is commonly used, but specialised computers are also possible, while normally unmanned substations may dispense with a permanently installed HMI and rely on operations/maintenance staff bringing a portable computer equipped with the appropriate software with them when attendance is required. It is usual to also provide one or more printers linked to the HMI in order to provide hard-copy records of various kinds (Sequence of Events recorder, alarm list, etc.)
various devices. In a new substation, all of the elements of the automation system will normally use the same bus, or at most two busses, to obtain cost-effectiveness. Where a substation automation system is being retrofitted to an existing substation, it may be necessary to use existing communications busses to communicate with some existing devices. This can lead to a multiplicity of communications busses within the automation system
provided by a dedicated interface unit, be part of the HMI computer or part of an IED. It perhaps may not be provided at all \u2013 though since one of the benefits of substation automation is the capability of remote control/ monitoring, this would be highly unusual. It may only occur during a staged development of an automation scheme at a time when the bay operations are being automated but the substation is still manned, prior to implementing remote control capability
c.interface to remote SCADA system
d.control of electrical equipment in a bay locally
e.monitoring of electrical equipment in a bay locally
Now bringing you back...
Does that email address look wrong? Try again with a different email.