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1008.5355v1

1008.5355v1

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HOMEOMORPHISMS BETWEEN LIMBS OF THEMANDELBROT SET
DZMITRY DUDKO AND DIERK SCHLEICHER
Abstract.
We prove that for every hyperbolic component of theMandelbrot set, any two limbs with equal denominators are home-omorphic so that the homeomorphism preserves periods of hyper-bolic components. This settles a conjecture on the Mandelbrot setthat goes back to 1994.
1.
Introduction
The Mandelbrot set
M
is a set with a very rich combinatorial, topo-logical, and geometric structure. It is often called “self-similar” becausethere are countably many dynamically defined homeomorphisms from
M
into itself, and the set of such homeomorphisms forms a semigroup.Moreover, there are many dynamically defined homeomorphisms fromcertain dynamically defined subsets of 
M
to other subsets of 
M
. Per-haps the first such result was a homeomorphism from the 1
/
2-limbof 
M
to a subset of the 1
/
3-limb of 
M
constructed by Branner andDouady[BD]; this class of homeomorphisms was later extended byRiedl [Ri].In[BF1], it was shown, using homeomorphisms to parameter spacesof certain higher degree polynomials, that any two limbs
L
 p/q
and
L
 p
/q
(with equal denominators) were homeomorphic. These homeo-morphisms preserve the embedding into the plane so that they evenextend to neighborhoods of these limbs within
C
, preserving the ori-entation[BF2]. All these homeomorphisms are constructed by quasi-conformal surgery, and they all change the dynamics of the associatedpolynomials so that in general, periods of hyperbolic components arechanged.At about the same time, it was observed [LS]that there is a com-binatorially defined bijection between the limbs
L
 p/q
and
L
 p
/q
thatpreserves periods of hyperbolic components, and it was conjecturedthat this would yield a homeomorphism between these limbs that pre-served periods of hyperbolic components. An early attempt to provethis conjecture by quasiconformal surgery resulted in another proof of the theorem from[BF1] that stayed within the quadratic family.A proof of this conjecture is the main result of the present paper; itcan be stated as follows.
Date
: September 1, 2010.
1
 
2 DZMITRY DUDKO AND DIERK SCHLEICHER
Main Theorem.
For any hyperbolic component of 
M
, let 
L
 p/q
and 
L
 p
/q
be two limbs with equal denominators. Then there exists a home-omorphism between them that preserves periods of hyperbolic compo-nents.
Since our homeomorphism preserves periods of hyperbolic compo-nents, it can not extend to neighborhoods of the limbs.For a fixed
n
1 consider the arrangement
M
n
of all hyperboliccomponents with periods up to
n
(see Figure1for an example). Thereis a combinatorial model
M
comb
of the Mandelbrot set that can bedescribed as a limit of 
M
n
in a certain sense [Do]. Furthermore, thereis a canonical continuous projection
π
:
M M
comb
, and any fiber
π
1
(
c
) is compact, connected, and full (a bounded set
C
is called
 full 
if its complement has no bounded components). The famous “MLCconjecture” (“the Mandelbrot set is locally connected”) can be statedas saying that
π
is a homeomorphism.
1
2
333
Figure 1.
Combinatorics of hyperbolic components of 
M
up to period 4.For any
p/q
and
p
/q
there is a canonical homeomorphism
between
π
(
L
 p/q
) and
π
(
L
 p
/q
) preserving periods of hyperbolic components. Ourstrategy is to show that
can be lifted up to the level of the Mandelbrotset; namely we have the following commutative diagram:(1)
L
 p/q
L
 p
/q
π
π
π
(
L
 p/q
)
π
(
L
 p
/q
)
.
We will show that this technique can be applied to any continuous mapthat “respects” small copies of the Mandelbrot set.This result fits into the vision of Douady expressed by the statementthat “combinatorics implies topology”: many results about the Man-delbrot sets are discovered and described in terms of combinatorics, andthese combinatorial results lead the way for topological statements. In
 
THE HOMEOMORPHISM THEOREM 3
our case, the combinatorial result remained a topological conjecturesince about 1994. The key progress that was required was the Decora-tion Theorem (see below).
Outline of the paper.
In Section2we recall the notion of hyperboliccomponents, small copies of the Mandelbrot set, and combinatorialclasses. The combinatorial model
M
comb
is defined as the quotient of 
M
.Section3contains the definition and main properties of internaland angled internal addresses. They are coordinates for combinato-rial classes.In Section4we will construct Diagram1.The homeomorphism
:
π
(
L
 p/q
)
π
(
L
 p
/q
) exists by fundamental properties of angledinternal addresses. As
coincides with the canonical homeomorphismon every small copy of the Mandelbrot set there exists a bijection
thatmakes Diagram1commute. The continuity of 
follows from Yoccoz’sresults, the existence of the canonical isomorphism of all copies of theMandelbrot set, and the Decoration theorem.In Section5we will formulate a general statement that allows tolift a continuous map from the level of the combinatorial model of theMandelbrot set to the actual Mandelbrot set.2.
The Mandelbrot set
The
Mandelbrot set 
M
is defined as the set of quadratic polynomials(2)
p
c
:
z
z
2
+
c
with connected Julia sets. It is a compact, connected, and full set.As the Mandelbrot set is the parameter space of quadratic polynomi-als there is an additional structure (combinatorics) of 
M
on top of thetopology. For instance,
M
contains hyperbolic components and smallcopies of the Mandelbrot set. Both types of subsets have dynamicalmeaning.
Hyperbolic components.
A
hyperbolic component of 
M
is a connectedcomponent of the set of parameters
c
M
so that
p
c
has an attractingorbit.Assume that
p
c
(
z
) =
z
2
+
c
:
C
C
has an non-repelling periodiccycle; this means there is a periodic orbit
z
c
of 
p
c
with multiplier of absolute value at most 1. The periodic orbit
z
c
is necessarily unique;let
λ
(
z
c
) be its multiplier. Then it is known that:
there is a hyperbolic component
H
such that
c
∈ H ⊂ M
;
the attracting orbit
z
c
has constant period throughout
H
;
within
H
the cycle
z
c
moves holomorphically;
the multiplier map
λ
:
H
D
is a conformal isomorphism; thismap extends to a homeomorphism from
H
to
D
.

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