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Accounting for Managers

Accounting for Managers

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Published by: api-3728370 on Oct 16, 2008
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UNIT – ILESSON – 1.1-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ACCOUNTING – AN INTRODUCTION-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1.1.1
 
INTRODUCTION
Accounting is aptly called the language of business. Thisdesignation is applied to accounting because it is the method of communicating business information. The basic function of anylanguage is to serve as a means of communication. Accounting dulyserves this function. The task of learning accounting is essentiallythe same as the task of learning a new language. But theacceleration of change in business organization has contributed toincreasing the complexities in this language. Like other languages,it is undergoing continuous change in an attempt to discover better means of communications. To enable the accounting language toconvey the same meaning to all people as far as practicable itshould be made standard. To make it a standard language certainaccounting principles, concepts and standards have been developedover a period of time. This lesson dwells upon the differentdimensions of accounting, accounting concepts, accounting principles and the accounting standards.
1.1.2
 
OBJECTIVES
After reading this lesson, the reader should be able to:
 
Know the evolution of accounting
 
Understand the definition of accounting
 
 2
 
Comprehend the scope and function of accounting
 
Ascertain the users of accounting information
 
Know the specialised accounting fields
 
Understand the accounting concepts and conventions
 
Realise the need for accounting standards
1.1.3
 
CONTENTS
1.1.3.1 Evolution of Accounting1.1.3.2
 
Book Keeping and Accounting1.1.3.3
 
Definition of Accounting1.1.3.4
 
Scope and Functions of Accounting1.1.3.5
 
Groups Interested in Accounting Information1.1.3.6
 
The Profession of Accounting1.1.3.7
 
Specialised Accounting Fields1.1.3.8
 
 Nature and Meaning of Accounting Principles1.1.3.9
 
Accounting Concepts1.1.3.10
 
Accounting Conventions1.1.3.11
 
Accounting Standards1.1.3.12
 
Summary1.1.3.13
 
Key Words1.1.3.14
 
Self Assessment Questions1.1.3.15
 
Books for Further Reading
1.1.3.1
 
EVOLUTION OF ACCOUNTING
Accounting is as old as money itself. It has evolved, as have medicine,law and most other fields of human activity in response to the social andeconomic needs of society. People in all civilizations have maintained varioustypes of records of business activities. The oldest known are clay tablet recordsof the payment of wages in Babylonia around 600 B.C. Accounting was
 
 3 practiced in India twenty-four centuries ago as is clear from Kautilya’s book `Arthshastra’ which clearly indicates the existence and need of proper accounting and audit.For the most part, early accounting dealt only with limited aspects of thefinancial operations of private or governmental enterprises. Completeaccounting system for an enterprise which came to be called as “Double EntrySystem” was developed in Italy in the 15
th
century. The first known descriptionof the system was published there in 1494 by a Franciscan monk by the nameLuca Pacioli.The expanded business operations initiated by the IndustrialRevolution required increasingly large amounts of money which in turnresulted in the development of the corporation form of organisations. Ascorporations became larger, an increasing number of individuals andinstitutions looked to accountants to provide economic information aboutthese enterprises. For e.g. prospective investors and creditors soughtinformation about a corporation’s financial status. Government agenciesrequired financial information for purposes of taxation and regulation.Thus accounting began to expand its function of meeting the needs of relatively few owners to a public role of meeting the needs of a varietyof interested parties.
1.1.3.2
 
BOOK KEEPING AND ACCOUNTING
Book-keeping is that branch of knowledge which tells us how tokeep a record of business transactions. It is considered as an art of recording systematically the various types of transactions that occur in a business concern in the books of accounts. According to Spicer andPegler, “book-keeping is the art of recording all money transactions, sothat the financial position of an undertaking and its relationship to bothits proprietors and to outside persons can be readily ascertained”.

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