Entrepreneurial aspirations, motivations, and their drivers
Marco van Gelderen
Accepted: 13 July 2008/Published online: 4 September 2008
The Author(s) 2008. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com
Several drivers of entrepreneurial aspira-tions and entrepreneurial motivations are investigatedusing country-level data from the Global Entrepre-neurship Monitor (GEM) for the years 2005 and 2006.We estimate a two-equation model explaining aspi-rations using motivations and socioeconomicvariables, and explaining motivations using socioeco-nomic variables. We ﬁnd that countries with a higherincidence of increase-wealth-motivated entrepreneurstend to have a higher prevalence of high-job-growthand export-oriented entrepreneurship and that acountry’s level of social security relates negativelyto the prevalence of innovative, high-job-growth, andexport-oriented entrepreneurship. We also ﬁnd thatthe increase-wealth motive mediates the relationshipbetween socioeconomic variables and entrepreneurialaspirations.
Global Entrepreneurship Monitor
The world of entrepreneurship policy has been shapedby three stylized facts.
, entrepreneurship (busi-ness ownership) enhances economic growth (Carreeand Thurik 2003; Acs et al.2004; Audretsch and
Keilbach2004; Acs2006; van Praag and Versloot
2007). However, entrepreneurship (business owner-ship) not always stimulates growth (Baumol1996;Audretsch and Thurik 2001; van Stel and Storey2004). Van Stel et al. (2005) ﬁnd that entrepreneurial
activity by nascent entrepreneurs and owner/managersof young businesses is positively associated to eco-nomic growth only for countries with a high level of per capita income.
, high-growth ﬁrms con-tribute more to economic growth than small, new,ﬁrms in general (Mason1985; Friar and Meyer2003;
Pages et al.2003; Wong et al.2005), while most
persons involved in new ﬁrm formation have nogrowth aspiration (Wennekers and Thurik 1999;Henrekson2005).
, while there is a plethora of policy measures with an entrepreneurship or smallbusiness ﬂavor (Stevenson and Landstrom2001;
J. Hessels (
R. Thurik EIM Business and Policy Research,P.O. Box 7001, 2701 AA Zoetermeer, The Netherlandse-mail: email@example.comJ. Hessels
R. Thurik Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam,The NetherlandsM. van GelderenCollege of Business, Massey University, Auckland,New Zealand
Small Bus Econ (2008) 31:323–339DOI 10.1007/s11187-008-9134-x