OCR Media Studies for A268
to music and buy things that are not produced locally ornationally if we know they are there for us to watch, listen to andbuy.
What difference does it make?
In a globalised world there will be a single society and cultureoccupying the planet … it will be a society without borders andspatial boundaries. We can define globalisation as a social processin which the constraints of geography on social and culturalarrangements recede and in which people become increasinglyaware that they are receding.
Waters (1995: 3) describes globalisation here in geographicalterms. Put simply, as we become more ‘globalised’, we care lessabout local or national culture, and identify more with attractive,persuasive ideas and ways of living, regardless of where they comefrom. But not everybody agrees with this. Moores (2005: 66) arguesthat our idea of the speciﬁc place, the local, is not ‘marginalised’(made less important) by globalisation, but is instead made‘instantaneously pluralized’ – in other words, we just visit(virtually) a lot more local spaces rather than one big virtual globalspace. Another example Moores uses is the person walking downthe high street talking on a mobile phone to somebody in anothercountry, which we might think of as being in two places at once.So we end up living in lots of spaces – local and global, at the sametime.
Globalisation divides as much as it unites; it divides as it unites –the causes of division being identical with those which promote theuniformity of the globe. What appears as globalisation for somemeans localisation for others; signalling a new freedom to some,upon many others it descends as an uninvited and cruel fate.
Here, Bauman (1998: 2) is reﬂecting on the ‘winners and losers’,stressing that not everybody is included in the global village, in which – in reality – the rich and powerful share ideas, exchangetrade, buy and sell, and dominate markets of various kinds. Forthose ‘left behind’, local culture becomes impoverished anddesperate. We must always remember, for example, that less than20 per cent of the human race has broadband internet access. In aplace like the Gambia, culture is very local, and very poor.
How can we study it?
Although the new electronic networks have partially replaced therelatively stable and enduring traditional communities with whichwe are accustomed, they also facilitate countless highlyspecialised social and cultural connections that otherwise would