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pl_sql

pl_sql

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PL/SQL
User\u2019s Guide and Reference
Release 2 (9.2)
March 2002
Part No. A96624-01
PL/ SQL User \u2019s Gu ide and Reference, Release 2 (9.2)
Part No. A96624-01
Copyright \u00a9 1996, 2002 Oracle Corporation. All rights reserved.
Primary Au thor: John Russell
Contributing Author: Tom Portfolio

Contributors: Shashaanka Agrawal, Cailein Barclay,Dmitri Bronnikov, Sharon Castledine, Thomas Chang, Ravindra Dani, Chandrasekharan Iyer, Susan Kotsovolos, Neil Le, Warren Li, Chris Racicot, Mu rali Vemu lapati, Gu han Viswanathan, Minghui Yang

The Programs (which include both the software and documentation) contain proprietary information of
Oracle Corporation; they are provided under a license agreement containing restrictions on use and
disclosure and are also protected by copyright, patent and other intellectual and industrial property

laws. Reverse engineering, disassembly or decomp ilation of the Programs, except to the extent required
to obtain interoperability with other independently created software or as speci\ufb01ed by law, is prohibited.

The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice. If you \ufb01nd any problems in the documentation, please report themto us in writing. Oracle Corporation does not warrant that this document is error-free. Except as may be expressly permitted in your license agreement for these

Programs, no part of these Programs may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means,
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If the Programs are delivered to the U.S. Government or anyone licensing or using the programs on
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comp uter software" and use, duplication, and disclosure of the Programs, including documentation,

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Otherwise, Programs delivered subject to the Federal Acquisition Regulations are "restricted comp uter
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52.227-19, Comm ercial Comp uter Software - Restricted Rights (June, 1987). Oracle Corporation, 500
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The Programs are not intended for use in any nuclear, aviation, mass transit, medical, or other inherently

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Oracle is a registered trademark, and Oracle Store, Oracle9i, PL/ SQL, Pro*C, and SQL*Plus are
trademarks or registered trademarks of Oracle Corporation. Other names may be trademarks of their
respective owners.
iii
Contents

Send Us Your Comments.................................................................................................................xix Preface..........................................................................................................................................................xxi What\u2019s New in PL/SQL?...................................................................................................................xxxi 1 Overview of PL/SQL

Understanding the Main Features of PL/SQL...............................................................................1-2

Block Structure..............................................................................................................................1-2 Variables and Constants..............................................................................................................1-3 Cu rsors...........................................................................................................................................1-5 Cu rsor FOR Loops........................................................................................................................1-6 Cu rsor Variables...........................................................................................................................1-6 Attributes.......................................................................................................................................1-7 Control Structures........................................................................................................................1-9 Modu larity...................................................................................................................................1-12 Data Abstraction.........................................................................................................................1-14 Information Hiding....................................................................................................................1-16 Error Hand ling............................................................................................................................1-16

PL/SQL Architecture........................................................................................................................1-17
In the Oracle Database Server...................................................................................................1-18
In Oracle Tools............................................................................................................................1-20
Advantages of PL/SQL.....................................................................................................................1-20
Sup port for SQL..........................................................................................................................1-20

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