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The Role of Mangers in Work Life Balance

The Role of Mangers in Work Life Balance

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THE ROLE OF MANAGERS INWORK-LIFE BALANCEIMPLEMENTATION
 Mervyl McPherson
 Equal Employment Opportunities Trust, Auckland 
Abstract
The paper draws on existing overseas research to present an argument for the importance of the role of individualmanagers and workplace culture in the successful outcome of work-life balance programmes in workplaces. Then,using findings from a recent Work-Life Survey of New Zealand employers by the EEO Trust, and other New Zealand based research, it looks at where New Zealand organisations are at in terms of the role of managers in implementingwork-life balance programmes. Additional information from employees’ perspectives on the role of managers in theimplementation of work-life balance programmes is drawn from a qualitative study of mothers’ experience of combining paid work and parenting carried out by the author for the Families Commission (forthcoming) and other  New Zealand research. The paper concludes with suggestions of how New Zealand organisations can improveoutcomes from work-life balance initiatives by greater attention to the role of managers in the process.
Introduction
Empirical studies show availability of work-life policiesdoes not necessarily result in uptake by employees, andthus reduced work-life conflict and enhancedperformance, retention and reduced absenteeism (Hudson,2005; McDonald et al, 2005; Bond, 2004). These studiesinclude O’Driscoll et al,’s (2003) New Zealand study of the perceived role of organizational and supervisorsupport in reducing work-family conflict through family-responsive interventions in the workplace.Uptake and reduction in work-life conflict is related toorganizational environment /workplace culture (Hudson,2005; Bond, 2004; Thompson et al, 1999; Thompson andProttas, 2006). McDonald, Brown and Bradley (2005)identified five dimensions of organizational work-lifeculture that account for the gap between policy andpractice in Australia: lack of managerial support,perceived career consequences, time expectations,gendered perceptions of utilization of work-lifeprovisions, and co-worker support. Bond (2004) notesthat while the concept of work-family culture has beenoperationalised in different ways, some measure of supportiveness within organizations is a consistent factor,with supervisor/managerial support being one aspect of that.This paper focuses on the role of managerial support. Anumber of researchers have found the attitude and role of managers to be the main or primary determinant of work-life practice and outcomes.Work-life balance is defined on the New ZealandDepartment of Labour work-life balance website as beingabout “effectively managing the juggling act betweenpaid work and the other activities that are important topeople”. (http://www.dol.govt.nz/worklife/whatis.asp).They note that it is not about saying work is wrong orbad, but that “it shouldn’t crowd out the other things thatmatter to people, like time with family, participation incommunity activities, voluntary work, personaldevelopment, leisure and recreation”. They also pointout that there is no “one size fits all solution. The ‘right’balance is a very personal thing that differs for differentpeople and at different stages of the life course.The term “work” is being used here to refer to paid work or employment. The term “work-life balance” is acontested term, with many alternatives suggested, such as“work-life integration”, “work-life interface”, “work-lifemosaic”, “work-life reconciliation” or “work-lifecoordination” (McPherson, 2007). While many arguewith the use of the term work-life balance, mainly on thebasis that it may be interpreted as work not being a part of life, or that balance is not the aim of some but ratherintegration, arguing that the two cannot becompartmentalised and separated, others dislike the termintegration as they want separation and boundariesbetween their work life and the rest of their life. Whilethe terminology is debated by academics, work-lifebalance is the terminology in popular usage in both socialand human resource management literature and thepopular media.Work-life initiatives investigated in the EEO Trust Work-Life Survey, in order of frequency of provision by
Labour, Employment and Work in New Zealand 2006
1
 
 
Labour, Employment and Work in New Zealand 2006
2
employers, were domestic/special leave, flexible work hours, discouraging long hours, study leave/career break,support for carers, family oriented social events, flexiblework location, transition between full and part-time work in same position, children welcome at work, providinginformation on work-life balance, job sharing, part-timework at senior levels, fridge for storing breast milk, onsite breastfeeding room/area, compressed working week,term-time working, school holiday and after-schoolprogrammes or subsidies, childcare facilities or subsidies,and having a health and wellness programme (EEO Trust,2006).
The Relationship Between Work-LifeBalance Policies, Initiatives and Uptake, theRole of Managers, and Productivity
The role of a supportive supervisor or manager in positiveoutcomes for family-friendly benefits was confirmed in alarge nationally representative sample study byThompson and Prottas (2006). An earlier study byThompson et al (1999) found managerial supportaccounted for most of the explained variance in work-family culture, ahead of negative career consequencesand organizational time demands. This earlier, lessrepresentative, study also found that work-family culturewas positively related to employees’ use of work-familybenefits and affective commitment to their work, andnegatively related to work-family conflict and intentionsto leave an organisation.Bardoel (2003) investigated the relative roles of managerial factors versus institutional and resourcedependent factors in explaining employer provision of work-family programmes and an accommodatingworkplace culture in Australia, and found that managerialfactors accounted for most of the variance. Perceivedbenefits/efficiency gains was related to high number of work-family initiatives being offered. Managers’attitudes and strategies were related to overall number of initiatives offered. Institutional forces or policies of largeor public sector organizations added to rather than drovedecisions re work-family implementation. Individualmanagers drove the outcome. Institutional factors hadmore influence on the workplace culture beingaccommodating of work-family programmes. Bloom et al(2003) reviewed 732 manufacturing organizations in theUS, France, the UK, and Germany to investigate the link between work-life balance and
 
productivity. They foundthat there was no direct relationship between work-lifebalance policies/initiatives in an organization andincreased productivity. (there was no direct negativerelationship between work-life balance and productivity).The intermediary factor was managers: good managementwas linked to both work-life balance policies and higherproductivity. This suggests that good management is thekey to work-life balance policies translating into positiveoutcomes such as increased productivity. This study didnot investigate implementation of work-life policies.O’Driscoll et al (2003) In a study of 355 managers inNew Zealand found perceptions of an organization havinga family supportive culture and a supportive supervisorwere significantly related to reduced work to homeinterference, but only the supportive supervisor alsoreduced home to work interference. Just having a work-life policy or initiatives was not related to reduction inpsychological stress from conflict between work andhome.White et al found that the ability of supervisors toinfluence negative job to home spillover increasedbetween 1992 and 2000.According to De Cieri et al (2002), the main barriers toimplementation and management of work-life balancestrategies identified in existing literature includeorganizational culture and attitudes and resistance of supervisors and middle management. In an analysis of three surveys of Australian organizations from 1997 to2000, they found the main barriers to implementation andmanagement of work-life balance strategies includedinaction by both senior and line managers andunsupportive culture. In particular De Cieri et al foundthat uptake of work-life provisions was positively relatedto the number of provisions available, but there was a lagbetween provision and uptake. The authors note that thissupports other research that found “an organizationalculture that is unsupportive of work-life strategies maylead to employee reluctance to utilize benefits” (De Cieri,2002:5).These findings are consistent with a body of evidence thatshows work-life balance and diversity policies do not inthemselves produce better outcomes; that they need to beimplemented through a linked series of strategies thatcreate a supportive culture through integration into theorganisations’ core business strategies and throughmanagement accountability for outcomes (ManagingWork/Life Balance, 2004; Rutherford and Ollerearnshaw,2002; Opportunity Now, 2004). Without this theirimplementation is at the discretion of managers.
Barriers to Manager Implementation of Work-Life Policies/Strategies
Barriers to manager implementation of work-lifepolicies/strategies identified by various studies includelack of formal written policies, resource and operationalfactors, lack of senior management support and asupportive workplace culture, concerns about equityamong staff, traditional management styles and beliefsand a lack of training in how to manage a flexibleworkforce, and lack of accountability throughperformance measures.A study of 806 line managers in 22 UK organizations(Opportunity Now, 2005)found they have not been convinced of the business casefor gender equality/diversity, perceive a lack of supportand commitment by senior management, are not beingmade personally accountable for achieving strategies toachieve these aims, do not feel they are being adequatelytrained to deal with this area, and are working long hours
 
 
Labour, Employment and Work in New Zealand 2006
3
with poor work-life balance themselves due to heavyworkloads beyond their control. This study alsoidentified poor communication and overuse of the intranetto support and communicate with managers as a barrier tosuccessful implementation of gender equality/diversitystrategies.In a UK study of 1509 randomly selected workplaces,management discretion when operating work-life policieswas greater where there were no formal written work-lifepolicies (Woodland et al, 2002). Positive impact of work-life balance practices on workplace performance, asmeasured by employee relations with management,productivity, absenteeism, staff turnover, recruitment andemployee motivation were all higher where managersfollowed set procedure than where they had discretion.The exception was small workplaces where employeerelations were better when managers had discretion.Having a written policy was also positively related tohigher up-take of flexible work practices.Rutherford and Ollerearnshaw (2002) in a study of 140UK organisations found making managers accountablefor performance on diversity and equality outcomes to bethe most important factor making this area a businesspriority and in achieving positive outcomes.Accountability at the individual level can involvepromotion and pay. Only 32% of private sectororganizations and 24% of public sector organizationslinked performance on diversity and equality to amanager’s pay, with 48% linking to promotion, but 55%of private and 78% of public sector organizations claimedto hold them accountable. Yet 91% of thoseorganizations linking diversity outcomes to managers’pay reported a link between diversity and their overallbusiness performance, compared with an average of 80%of all organizations in the study.Thompson, Thomas and Maier, (1992) give four keyreasons for management resistance to flexible work policies: possible inequities among staff, difficulties inprioritizing, procedural barriers and traditionalmanagement styles. Similarly, Rapaport and Bailyn(1996) and Quijada (2005) argue that managers worryabout the increased workload for themselves of managingflexibility, impacts on productivity, and inequities amongstaff. “As a result, managers often end up sendingnegative signals indicating that the use of flexible, family-friendly benefits is a problem for them and for thecompany as a whole” (Rapoport and Bailyn, 1996:19).Yet a US study of managers of employees who areworking flexibly found 75% of these managers reportedno change in their workload and almost all reported apositive impact on productivity, retention and quality of work (Boston College Centre for Work and Family,2000:3). Another study found that managing flexibleschedules has improved overall management skills(Catalyst, 2000).Bond et al (2002) investigated the pressures, constraintsand criteria that influenced decision-making of linemanagers who had discretionary power for theimplementation of family-friendly policies in four casestudy organisations. The discretionary power of linemanagers within a broad framework is justified by theneed to tailor initiatives to individual circumstancestogether with the need to weight up resource andoperational factors. The downside is potential inequitiesin the implementation of policies, either betweenmanagers or among employees. Managers in Bond et al’sstudy were afraid more formalized policies would lead toentitlement and abuse, consistent with the lack of trust bymangers found in a New Zealand survey in New Zealand(Sweeney Research, 2004). Managers’ perceptions of employee inputs and managers’ attitudes to atypicalworking patterns were important influences on decision-making. Managerial attitudes to flexible workinginfluenced employee access to such practices. In oneorganization Bond et al found that those managers thatwere least receptive to flexible working held beliefs thatbusiness objectives could only be achieved by traditionalfull-time work patterns. Men were more likely thanwomen to be refused access to flexible workingarrangements.Research by Quijada (2005) among US softwareengineers identified trust and a focus on results asdistinguishing characteristics of managers in“successfully flexible organizations”. “What mattersmost is getting the work done”, breaking from theassumption “that time equals commitment andperformance. Successful managers of flexible work arrangements focus on the work, not on the hours worked.This is a very different assumption to work under, andone that dramatically makes it easier to have flexibleschedules. This principle shifts the focus of the managertowards the tangible results of work as a measure of performance. Working in an organization where thisprinciple is present results in increased responsiblity overthe employees using the flexible schedules. Employeesmust realize that what they do impacts other members of the team and that they need to et their work done asexpected, and when that is not possible they need tocommunicate with the team. A focus on results givesfreedom to employees and mangers from the bane of facetime that plagues many organizations” (Quijada,2005:10). Quijada sets out a comparison of traditionalmanagement styles which she calls “line of sight” style,with “target based styles” more suited to flexible work practices. Managing a flexible workplace requires carefulplanning, clear and frequent deliverables, core hours,leveraging of technology, and shifting responsibility formaking work happen on to employees.Two areas of constraint in granting flexible work optionsidentified by Bond et al were where skills cannot easilybe substituted, and where there are time constraints.However local research by Sweeney Research showseven where these factors were not present, managers werereluctant to manage a flexible workforce.Yeandle et al 2003 UK interviewed 100 managers in 30workplaces and found they do not have adequate trainingfor dealing with requests from employees for work-lifeinitiatives such as flexible working arrangements.

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