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Creating pen-and-ink illustration using stroke morphing method

Creating pen-and-ink illustration using stroke morphing method

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C reating P en-and-Ink Illustration u s in g Stroke M orphing M ethod
H ye-Sun K im
E r tu a l R e a lity D e p a r tm e n t
E TR I, TaeJeon,K orea
E -m ail: hsukim@ pearl.c s .pus a n.a c. k r
H ee-Jeong Jin, Y oung-Jung Y u, H w an-G ueC ho
D epartm ento f C om puter Science,
Pusan N ational U niversity,Korea
E -m a il:{ h jjin , y jy u , h g c h o } @ p e a rl.c s .p u s a n .a c .k r
A b stract
M ost illustration systems need
a
lo to f user strokes
t og e n e r a te n a tu r a l-lo o k in g p e n -a n d -in k illu s tr a tio n s .
I n
o r d e r .t o
reduce the numbero f
user strokes necessary,
we propose
a new

m e th o d f o r p e n -a n d -in k illu s tr a tio n s using a stroke m orphing concept. For this, we introduce a general stroke m orphing procedure, which consists of b o th jlo w -o r ie n te d

morphing and shape-oriented morph-
in g .
U s in g th is m o r p h in g te c h n iq u e , w e c a n m a k e m o r e
n a tu r a l-lo o k in g p e n -a n d -in k illu s tr a tio n w ith fe w e r
u s e r
s tr o k e s .
T h is w o rk c a n b e a p p lie d to g e n e r a te s im p lije d
p ic tu r e s f o r d ic tio n a r y ty p e s e ttin g .

The m ain purposeo f th is p a p e r ist o d e s c r ib e th is m e th o d , w h ic h r e q u ir e s fe w e r user strokes than other previous m ethods.

E x p e r im e n ta l
r e s u lts a re g iv e n in th e $ n a l s e c tio n .
K eyw ords:Illu s tra tio n , S tro k e M o rp h in g
1 .In tr o d u c tio n
S c ie n tific , te c h n ic a l, o r m e d ic a l d o c u m e n ts h a v e m a n y
illu s tra tio n s ,
s k e tc h e s
o r
o th e r
lin e -o rie n te d
draw ings.

T h o u g h tra d itio n a l p rin tin g te c h n iq u e sh a v ebeen developed in c re a s in g ly in o u r c e n tu ry , illu s tra te d p ic tu re s a re a ls ou s e d since that abstract draw ings can convey com plex inform a- tio n b e tte r th a n re a lis tic im a g e s [2 ]. A b s tra c t d ra w in g s lik e p e n -a n d -in k illu s tra tio n s o ffe r n u m e ro u s a d v a n ta g e s o v e r p h o to re a lis m a n d th e y in c lu d e th e ir a b ility to o m it e x tra n e - o u s d e ta ils , to fo c u s a tte n tio no nre le v a n t fe a tu re s , to c la rify and sim plify shapes,ort o expose parts th a ta r e hidden[9].

1 .1
P r e v io u sw orks
In recent years, a num ber of system s w hich autom at-
ic a lly g e n e ra te p e n -a n d -in k illu s tra tio n s h a v e b e e n d e v e l-
o p e d .T hese system s can be clasified into tw o broad, input-
based categories: geom etry-baged system s, w hich take3 D
descriptions as input; and im age-based system s, w hich pro-
d u c e illu s tra tio n s fro m
greyscale im ages[7] .
G e o m e try -
based system s have been studiedt ore n d e r s ilh o u e tte s o f
3 D
o b je c ts [4 ].
In o n e

such study, strokes w ere draw n o n s ilh o u e tte im a g e s b y te x tu re m a p p in g [@ , w h ile a n o th e r s tu d y u s e d in te rs e c tio n lin e s [2 ]. H o w e v e r, it is h a rdt oe x - tract the boundaries and features of surfaces com pletely using im age-based m ethods.

A saresult, m ost recent re-

s e a rc h e rsh a v e chosen m ethods w hereby strokes are speci- fie d th ro u g h n u m e ro u s o f u s e r in te ra c tio n s ,i n im age-based system s.[d7 ,9 1

Anum ber of previous researchers have built their sys-
te m st o g e n e ra te illu s tra tio n s w h ic h h a v e b e e n b e a u tifu l,
artistic and sim ilart o natural objects, therefore theyh a v e
h a dt o
u s e m anys tro k e sp er illu s tra tio n . H o w e v e r,i f y o u
inspect dictionaries and textbooks, you can see that m any
p ractical illu stratio n s are so m ew h at d ifferen t fro m illu stra-
tio n sg e n e ra te d u s in g o th e r p re v io u s s y s te m s . F o r c la rity ,
d ic tio n a ry illu s tra tio n s e x p re s s o n ly im p o rta n t c h a ra c te ris -
tic s o f o b je c ts .
A s a result, m any
fe a tu re so f
ano b je c t
a re s im p lifie d o r o m itte d a n d fe w e r s tro k e s a re u s e d . F ig .1
show s tw o types of illustrations. F ig .l(a) show sa ni l l u s t r a -
tio n by an autom atic draw ing system[6 ] and Fig.l(b)show s
a h a n d -d ra w n illu s tra tio n p rin te di n a d ic tio n a ry . In th is p a -
per, we propose a new
m e th o d fo r g e n e ra tin g illu s tra tio n
s tro k e s b y a p p ly in gas tro k e m o rp h in g te c h n iq u e , w h ic h is
ak in d o f fie ld m o rp h in g .
1 .2
System overview
T he procedureo f our system consists of3 steps: bound-
arye x tra c tio n , in p u t of u s e r s tro k e s , a n d g e n e ra tio n of a rti-
fic ia l s tro k e s . In th e firs t s te p , th e b o u n d a rie s o f o b je c tsa r e
extracted and sm oothed by usingth e Bkzierc u r v e ,
U ser
strokes are then draw n by

the usert og e n e ra te a rtific ia l s tr o k e s .I n th e fin a l s te p , w e u s e s tro k e m o rp h in g te c h n iq u e s to generate artificial strokes. Each step is described in the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n i n d e t a i l . F ig .:!

s h o w s th e illu s tra tio n g e n - erating procedure using our system . A t first,a no rig in a l2 D im a g e is g iv e n , a s in F ig .2 (a ).

Then, our system extracts
1 1 3
0 -7 6 9 5 -1 0 0 7 -8 /0 1 $ 1 0 .0 0 02 0 0 1 IE E E
F ig u re
1 .
Tw o
ty p e s
o f
illu s tr a tio n
(a )
c o m p u te r-b a s e d
illu s tr a tio n b y
a

p re v io u s w o rk (h a v in g n u m e ro u s s tro k e s ) [6 ] (b ) h a n d - d ra w n illu s tr a tio n p r in te d o n d ic tio n a ry (h a v - in g fe w s tro k e s )

th e c o n to u ro fi t ,a s in F ig .2 (b ).I n th is s te p , th e b o u n d a ry edge segm ent m ust be connected sm oothly and sim plified. In o rd e r to m a k e a u s e r-illu s tra tio n . a h u m a n d ra w e r c re a te s

u s e rs tro k e s w ith in th e b o u n d a ry o f a g iv e n im a g e , lik e in

Fig.2(c). From these setso fgiven user strokes, our system g e n e ra te s a rtific ia l s tro k e s b a s e do n th e to p o lo g y o f th e u s e r s tro k e s . F ig .2 (d ) s h o w s th e re s u lt o f th e s tro k e m o rp h in g p h a s e .

2 .B oundary processing for illustration
I n general, it is difficult to generate a good illustration
if only a sm all num bero f strokes are used.
T o overcom e

th is d ra w b a c k w e e x p lo it th e b o u n d a ry o fa no b je c t. T h is phase consists of tw o parts; boundary sm oothing and im age c o n to u r c o n s tru c tio n .

2 .1 .Boundary sm oothing
T h e first s te po f th e b o u n d a ry e x tra c tio n i st o c o n s tru c t
b o u n d a ry
p o in ts w ith a
L a p la c ia n
filter and define the
b o u n d a ry u s in g p o ly lin e s [1 , 3 ,5 ]. A t th is s ta g e , th e b o u n d -
aryw ill b e ro u g h a n d c o m p le x . W e th e n u s e th e s m o o th in g
phase to refine the rough boundary. The sm oothing phase
re m o v e s re d u n d a n t a n d n o is y p o in ts in th e p o ly lin e s .
A f-

ter the sm oothing pha$e, the boundary becom es m ore sim - p le a n d th e c u rv e s s m o o th e r. T h is p ro c e s s is illu s tra te d b y F ig .3 . F ig .3 (a ) a n d (b ) sh o w a raw b o u n d a ry a n d its n o isy p o in ts , w h ic h a r e d e te rm in e d b y th e a re ao fth re e a d ja c e n t p o in ts(1 o c id tria n g le ). T h e n , th e p o in ts w h e re th e a re a o f th e lo c a l u la n g le a re le s s th a naare regardedas noise and e lim in a te d . F ig .3 (c ) s h o w s th e e x a m p le o f re d u n d a n t p o in ts , w h ic h h a w

a n g le s g re a te r th a n
6
'
.
T h e se p o in tsa rea l s o
e lim in a te d .. F ig .3 (d ) s h o w s th e r e s u lt o f th is p ro c e s s .
P l
P 1 0
P
-
P I 0
F ig u re3 . B o u n d a ry s m o o th in g :
(a ) fin d in g
o u t n o is y p o in ts a n d re m o v in gp 3 ,p s ,a n d
P 8 ,
( b ) r e im o v in gp 2
a n dp 7 , (c ) re m o v in g re d u n -
d a n t p o in tp 4 ,(d ) re s u lt b o u n d a ry
2 .2 . Im age contour construction
(C )
(d )

F o llo w in g b o u n d a ry s m o o th in g p ro c e s s , th e s im p lifie d , shortened boundary-lines m ust be connected as a single closed curve.

T h e re a re th re e s te p s , in th is c o n to u r c o n - s tru c tio n p ro c e s s : s e p a ra tio n , m e rg in g , a n d th e d e le tio no f p o ly lin e s .

F ig u re2 . Illu s tra tio n g e n e ra tin g p ro c e d u re :
(a ) a n o rig in a l im a g e (b ) b o u n d a ry e x tra c tio n
(c ) u s e r s tro k e s (d ) illu s tra tio n re s u lt
Ifth e d iffe re n c e b e tw e e n th e in c lin a tio n so f tw o a d ja c e n t
lin e s e g m e n ts in a p o ly lin e is la rg e r th a n a g iv e n th re s h o ld ,
114
l- - - - - l
l----- l
F ig u re4 . T w o ty p e s o f s tro k e m o rp h in g m e th -
o d s :

( a ) t ( b ) th e flo w -o rie n te d s tro k e m o r- p h in g p ro c e d u re , (c )-+ (d ) th e s h a p e -o rie n te d s tro k e m o rp h in g p ro c e d u re

w e d iv id e th e p o ly lin ea t th e p o in t th a t c o n n e c ts th e a d ja c e n t lin e s e g m e n ts .O n th e o th e r h a n d , if tw o d is tin c t p o ly lin e s arc closer than a given threshold, w e m erge them in ordert o m a k c th e p o ly lin c s in to o n e . A fte r th e s e p a ra tio n a n d m e rg - in g , th e im a g e c o n to u r c o n s tru c tio n p ro c e s s re m o v e s n o is y p o ly lin e s th a t a re s h o rte r th a nth e u se r-d e fin e d th re s h o ld .

3 .S tr o k e m o r p h in g

S tro k e m o rp h in g is a te c h n iq u e u s c d to a u to m a tic a lly generate artificial strokes basedo n given user strokes.W e u se tw o k in d so f m e th o d s: flo w -o rie n te d s tro k e m o rp h in g a n d s h a p e -o rie n te d s tro k e m o rp h in g . F lo w -o rie n te d s tro k e m o rp h in g is s u ita b le w h e n s tro k e s a re in te n d e d to s h o w flo w

o rd ire c tio n , lik e s m o k e o r w a te r.

S h a p e -o rie n te d s tro k e m o rp h in g ,o nth eo th e r h a n d ,i s s u ita b le w h e n s tro k e s a r e in flu e n c e d m o re b y s h a p eth a n flo w ,s oth isc a n b e a p p lie d to draw ing leaveso r feathers.

F ig .4 s h o w sth etw o d iffe re n t d ra w in g s tro k e m o rp h in g m e th o d s , b o th w ith th e s a m e n u m b e r o f u s e r s tro k e s . F ig .4 (a )+ (b ) sh o w th e flo w -o rie n te d stro k e m o rp h in g p ro c e d u re , and Fig.4 (c)+ (d) show the shape-oriented stroke m orphing procedure. T he m orphing m ethod em ployed by the userc a n b e c h o s e n b a s e d u p o n th e c h a ra c te ris tic s o f e a c h illu s tra tio n im a g e .

F ig .5 s h o w s a n o ta tio nfo r the structureo fa user stroke; c o n tro l p o in ts , a n g le s , le n g tho f c o m p o s in g v e c to r, d ire c tio n vectors, and a base vector show na ?ad o tte dlin e . L e ts i b e th ei - t h user stroke. T he s i,j denotes th e j - t hc o n tro l p o in t

o f th e u s e r s tro k es ; . T h e a n g lr (s i,k )i n th is fig u re d e n o te s
L s i,k -ls i,k s i,k + l
o fs i . T h e le n g th (s i,k ) d e n o te s th e e d g e
le n g th o f( s i , k ,si,k + l), a n d th e
C;,jm e a n s aj - t h d ire c tio n
vector of s f. T he base vector is defineda sb i=
-s i , l ,
w h e res i,? ,? is th e la s t c o n tro l p o in to f s i.
-
F ig u re5 . T h e s tru c tu re o f th e u s e r s tro k e fo r
m o rp hin g
3.1.U sers tr o k e
I nth e im ag e-b ased illu stratio n sy stem , little in fo rm atio n
i s supplicd,s o user strokcs arc used to com pensate for in-
s u ffic ie n c ie s .
A

u s e r p ro v id e s u s c r s tro k e s by d ra w in g p o ly lin e s d i- re c tlyo na n im a g e w itha m o u s eo r a s ty lu s p e n . T h e d i- re c tio n a n d n u m b e ro fuser strokes m ust be carefully detcr- m ined, since three param eters(3of s tro k e s , th e ir d ire c tio n , a n d th e ir le n g th ) a re c ru c ia lt o th e q u a lity o f th e fin a l illu s - tra tio n . T h e n , u s e r s tro k e s a re s im p lifie d a n d s m o o th e d ,t o e lim in a te n o is y a n d re d u n d a n t c o n tro l p o in ts .

Our system accepts tw oty p e so fuser stroke: th e shape user stroke andth ed ire c tio n u s e r s tro k e . F ig .7 s h o w s h o w this system generates artificialstrokes whenth e shape user s tro k e s(a )and th e direction user strokes (b ) are given.F o r s o m e o b je c ts , th e d ire c tio n u s e r s tro k e s d o n o tn e e d to b e g iv e n . F ig .7show s tw o different cases:i nF ig .7 (a ), o n ly shape user strokes are used, andi n Fig.7(b),both shape and d ire c tio nu s c rstrokes are used.

( a )s ,
(b )s d
(c )s s@
sd .
F ig u re6 .U ser s tro k e s a n d a rtific ia l s tro k e s :
(a ) s ,~ :
u s e r s tro k e fo r th e s h a p e (b )S d :

u s e r s tro k e fo r th e p ro c e s s in g d ire c tio n (c ) a rtifi- c ia l s tro k e s=s ,?@ Is d

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