Welcome to Scribd. Sign in or start your free trial to enjoy unlimited e-books, audiobooks & documents.Find out more
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Tai lieu on tap Moi Truong Va Con Nguoi

Tai lieu on tap Moi Truong Va Con Nguoi



|Views: 763|Likes:
Published by api-3772150

More info:

Published by: api-3772150 on Oct 16, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less





MO\u00c2I TR\u00d6\u00d4\u00d8NG VA\u00d8 CON NG\u00d6\u00d4\u00d8I.
Ca\u00e2u 1 : Ca\u00f9c Kha\u00f9i Nie\u00e4m Ve\u00e0 Qua\u00e0n The\u00e5 , Qua\u00e0n Xa\u00f5 , He\u00e4 Sinh Tha\u00f9i Va\u00f8
Mo\u00e2i Tr\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8ng.

+ Qua\u00e0n the\u00e5 : La\u00f8 ta\u00e4p h\u00f4\u00efp nh\u00f6\u00f5ng ca\u00f9 the\u00e5 cu\u00f8ng loa\u00f8i so\u00e1ng trong mo\u00e4t kho\u00e2ng
gian xa\u00f9c \u00f1\u00f2nh, tho\u00e1ng nha\u00e1t v\u00f4\u00f9i nhau ve\u00e0 ca\u00f9c thuo\u00e4c t\u00ednh : so\u00e1 l\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng, ca\u00e1u tru\u00f9c
va\u00f8 di truye\u00e0n.
+ Qua\u00e0n xa\u00f5 : La\u00f8 ta\u00e4p h\u00f4\u00efp ca\u00f9c qua\u00e0n the\u00e5 tho\u00e1ng nha\u00e1t, co\u00f9 quan he\u00e4 trao \u00f1o\u00e5i cha\u00e1t
va\u00f8 na\u00eang l\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng, \u00f1o\u00e0ng th\u00f4\u00f8i co\u00f9 t\u00ednh to\u00e5 ch\u00f6\u00f9c nha\u00e8m duy tr\u00ec kha\u00fb na\u00eang sinh to\u00e0n
cu\u00fba loa\u00f8i trong 1 kho\u00e2ng gian xa\u00f9c \u00f1\u00f2nh.
_ Qua\u00e0n xa\u00f5 co\u00f9 the\u00e5 la\u00f8 \u00f1a\u00efi qua\u00e0n xa\u00f5 co\u00f9 k\u00edch th\u00f6\u00f4\u00f9c l\u00f4\u00f9n hoa\u00f8n thie\u00e4n ve\u00e0 to\u00e5 ch\u00f6\u00f9c,
ch\u00e6 ca\u00e0n nguo\u00e0n na\u00eang l\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng t\u00f6\u00f8 ma\u00ebt tr\u00f4\u00f8i la\u00f8 co\u00f9 the\u00e5 hoa\u00eft \u00f1o\u00e4ng \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00efc kho\u00e2ng phu\u00ef
thuo\u00e4c va\u00f8o ca\u00f9c qua\u00e0n xa\u00f5 la\u00e2n ca\u00e4n, \u00f1o\u00e0ng th\u00f4\u00f8i cu\u00f5ng co\u00f9 the\u00e5 la\u00f8 nh\u00f6\u00f5ng tie\u00e5u qua\u00e0n
xa\u00f5 k\u00edch th\u00f6\u00f4\u00f9c nho\u00fb be\u00f9 va\u00f8 phu\u00ef thuo\u00e4c va\u00f8o qua\u00e0n xa\u00f5 la\u00e2n ca\u00e4n.
_ Qua\u00e0n xa\u00f5 th\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8ng \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00efc pha\u00e2n loa\u00efi va\u00f8 \u00f1a\u00ebt te\u00e2n theo ca\u00e1u tru\u00f9c loa\u00f8i ( loa\u00f8i
chie\u00e1m \u00f1a so\u00e1, \u00f6u the\u00e1 ) \u00f1ie\u00e0u kie\u00e4n n\u00f4i \u00f4\u00fb ( pho\u00e5 bie\u00e1n, ta\u00efo ra kha\u00f9 nhie\u00e0u loa\u00f8i
qua\u00e0n xa\u00f5 kha\u00f9c nhau ) luo\u00e2n luo\u00e2n trao \u00f1o\u00e5i cha\u00e1t ( kie\u00e5u sinh so\u00e1ng ).
_ He\u00e4 sinh tha\u00f9i : La\u00f8 mo\u00e4t he\u00e4 tho\u00e1ng nha\u00e1t bao go\u00e0m ca\u00f9c qua\u00e0n xa\u00f5 sinh va\u00e4t va\u00f8
mo\u00e2i tr\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8ng va\u00e4t ly\u00f9 t\u00f6\u00f4ng ta\u00f9c v\u00f4\u00f9i nhau tho\u00e2ng qua do\u00f8ng na\u00eang l\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng va\u00f8 ca\u00f9c
chu tr\u00ecnh tua\u00e0n hoa\u00f8n va\u00e4t cha\u00e1t ta\u00efo ne\u00e2n 1 ca\u00e1u tru\u00f9c dinh d\u00f6\u00f4\u00f5ng va\u00f8 s\u00f6\u00ef \u00f1a da\u00efng
nha\u00e1t \u00f1\u00f2nh ve\u00e0 loa\u00f8i \u00f6\u00f9ng v\u00f4\u00f9i mo\u00e4t kho\u00e2ng gian cu\u00ef the\u00e5.
. He\u00e4 sinh tha\u00f9i sa\u00fbn xua\u00e1t la\u00f8 he\u00e4 sinh tha\u00f9i cu\u00f8ng ta\u00f9c \u00f1o\u00e4ng kha\u00f9 ma\u00efnh nha\u00e8m thu
ve\u00e0 nh\u00f6\u00f5ng nguo\u00e0n dinh d\u00f6\u00f4\u00f5ng ca\u00e0n thie\u00e1t.
. He\u00e4 sinh tha\u00f9i ba\u00fbo ve\u00e4 la\u00f8 he\u00e4 sinh tha\u00f9i cu\u00f8ng ba\u00fbo to\u00e0n nha\u00e8m phu\u00efc vu\u00ef cho nhu
ca\u00e0u ba\u00fbo ve\u00e4 c\u00f4 ba\u00fbn sinh tha\u00f9i.
. He\u00e4 sinh tha\u00f9i \u00f1o\u00e2 th\u00f2 : s\u00f6\u00ef can thie\u00e4p cu\u00fba con ng\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8i ma\u00efnh me\u00f5, ye\u00e1u to\u00e1 thie\u00e2n
nhie\u00e2n b\u00f2 la\u00e1n a\u00f9p.
. He\u00e4 sinh tha\u00f9i v\u00f4\u00f9i ca\u00f9c mu\u00efc \u00f1\u00edch kha\u00f9c : he\u00e4 sinh tha\u00f9i du l\u00f2ch, gia\u00fbi tr\u00ed\u2026.
_ Mo\u00e2i tr\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8ng : Theo \u00f1\u00f2nh ngh\u00f3a chung nha\u00e1t ve\u00e0 mo\u00e2i tr\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8ng trong t\u00f6\u00f8 \u00f1ie\u00e5n
mo\u00e2i tr\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8ng cu\u00fba My\u00f5, th\u00ec mo\u00e2i tr\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8ng la\u00f8 ta\u00e4p h\u00f4\u00efp ca\u00f9c va\u00e4t the\u00e5 co\u00f9 \u00f1ie\u00e0u kie\u00e4n va\u00f8
nh\u00f6\u00f5ng a\u00fbnh h\u00f6\u00f4\u00fbng bao quanh mo\u00e4t \u00f1o\u00e1i t\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng na\u00f8o \u00f1o\u00f9.
_ \u00d4\u00db go\u00f9c \u00f1o\u00e4 to\u00e5ng h\u00f4\u00efp xem \u00f1o\u00e1i t\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng tro\u00efng ta\u00e2m la\u00f8 con ng\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8i ( UNEP ) 1980
: mo\u00e2i tr\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8ng la\u00f8 mo\u00e4t ta\u00e4p h\u00f4\u00efp ca\u00f9c ye\u00e1u to\u00e1 : va\u00e4t ly\u00f9, ho\u00f9a ho\u00efc, sinh ho\u00efc, kinh te\u00e1

va\u00f8 xa\u00f5 ho\u00e4i bao quanh va\u00f8 ta\u00f9c \u00f1o\u00e4ng \u00f1e\u00e1n \u00f1\u00f4\u00f8i so\u00e1ng va\u00f8 s\u00f6\u00ef pha\u00f9t trie\u00e5n cu\u00fba mo\u00e4t ca\u00f9
the\u00e5 hoa\u00ebc mo\u00e4t co\u00e4ng \u00f1o\u00e0ng ng\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8i.
_ 1994 lua\u00e4t mo\u00e2i tr\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8ng cu\u00fba VN \u00f1\u00f6a ra mo\u00e4t \u00f1\u00f2nh ngh\u00f3a nh\u00f6 sau : mo\u00e2i
tr\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8ng bao go\u00e0m ca\u00f9c ye\u00e1u to\u00e1 t\u00f6\u00ef nhie\u00e2n va\u00f8 ye\u00e1u to\u00e1 va\u00e4t cha\u00e1t nha\u00e2n ta\u00efo, quan he\u00e4
ma\u00e4t thie\u00e1t v\u00f4\u00f9i nhau bao quanh con ng\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8i co\u00f9 a\u00fbnh h\u00f6\u00f4\u00fbng tr\u00f6\u00efc tie\u00e1p t\u00f4\u00f9i \u00f1\u00f4\u00f8i
so\u00e1ng sa\u00fbn xua\u00e1t, s\u00f6\u00ef to\u00e0n ta\u00efi, pha\u00f9t trie\u00e5n cu\u00fba con ng\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8i va\u00f8 thie\u00e2n nhie\u00e2n.

Ca\u00e2u 2 : Ca\u00f9c \u00d1\u00f2nh Lua\u00e4t Ve\u00e0 Quan He\u00e4 Gi\u00f6\u00f5a Sinh Va\u00e4t Va\u00f8 Mo\u00e2i Tr\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8ng.
Quan he\u00e4 gi\u00f6\u00f5a sinh va\u00e4t va\u00f8 mo\u00e2i tr\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8ng co\u00f9 hai \u00f1\u00f2nh lua\u00e4t :

_ \u00d1\u00f2nh lua\u00e4t to\u00e1i ha\u00efn : cho\u00e1ng ch\u00f2u (Sheuford)
_ S\u00f6\u00ef so\u00e1ng cu\u00fba ca\u00f9c sinh va\u00e4t gi\u00f4\u00f9i ha\u00efn b\u00f4\u00fbi ca\u00f9c m\u00f6\u00f9c to\u00e1i thie\u00e5u va\u00f8 to\u00e1i \u00f1a cu\u00fba
ca\u00f9c nha\u00e2n to\u00e1 va\u00e4t ly\u00f9 cu\u00fba mo\u00e2i tr\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8ng, ngh\u00f3a la\u00f8 ne\u00e1u mo\u00e4t ye\u00e1u to\u00e1 na\u00f8o \u00f1o\u00f9 cu\u00fba
mo\u00e2i tr\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8ng co\u00f9 gia\u00f9 tr\u00f2 tha\u00e1p h\u00f4n m\u00f6\u00f9c to\u00e1i thie\u00e5u hoa\u00ebc cao h\u00f4n m\u00f6\u00f9c to\u00e1i \u00f1a \u00f1e\u00e0u
ga\u00e2y ha\u00efi tha\u00e4m ch\u00ed da\u00e3n \u00f1e\u00e1n t\u00f6\u00fb vong cho sinh va\u00e4t.
_ Mo\u00e3i loa\u00f8i sinh va\u00e4t kha\u00f9c nhau se\u00f5 co\u00f9 ng\u00f6\u00f4\u00f5ng to\u00e1i \u00f1a va\u00f8 to\u00e1i thie\u00e5u kha\u00f9c nhau
\u00f1o\u00e1i v\u00f4\u00f9i t\u00f6\u00f8ng ye\u00e1u to\u00e1 va\u00e4t ly\u00f9.
_ Bie\u00e2n \u00f1o\u00e4 gi\u00f6\u00f5a hai ng\u00f6\u00f4\u00f5ng to\u00e1i \u00f1a va\u00f8 to\u00e1i thie\u00e5u go\u00efi la\u00f8 gi\u00f4\u00f9i ha\u00efn ch\u00f2u \u00f1\u00f6\u00efng
cu\u00fba mo\u00e4t loa\u00f8i sinh va\u00e4t \u00f1o\u00e1i v\u00f4\u00f9i t\u00f6\u00f8ng ye\u00e1u to\u00e1 va\u00e4t ly\u00f9 na\u00f8y nh\u00f6ng he\u00efp \u00f1o\u00e1i v\u00f4\u00f9i
ye\u00e1u to\u00e1 va\u00e4t ly\u00f9 kia. Loa\u00f8i sinh va\u00e4t na\u00f8o co\u00f9 gi\u00f4\u00f9i ha\u00efn ch\u00f2u \u00f1\u00f6\u00efng ro\u00e4ng v\u00f4\u00f9i ha\u00e0u
he\u00e1t ca\u00f9c nha\u00e2n to\u00e1 sinh tha\u00f9i se\u00f5 pha\u00e2n bo\u00e1 ro\u00e4ng ra\u00f5i trong kho\u00e2ng gian.
_ M\u00f6\u00f9c th\u00edch h\u00f4\u00efp nha\u00e1t trong t\u00f6\u00f8ng ye\u00e1u to\u00e1 va\u00e4t ly\u00f9 \u00f1o\u00e1i v\u00f4\u00f9i t\u00f6\u00f8ng loa\u00efi sinh va\u00e4t
go\u00efi la\u00f8 m\u00f6\u00f9c to\u00e1i \u00f6u kha\u00f9c nhau \u00f1o\u00e1i v\u00f4\u00f9i t\u00f6\u00f8ng ye\u00e1u to\u00e1. Nh\u00f6ng ngay ca\u00fb \u00f1o\u00e1i v\u00f4\u00f9i
mo\u00e4t loa\u00f8i \u00f4\u00fb nh\u00f6\u00f5ng giai \u00f1oa\u00efn pha\u00f9t trie\u00e5n kha\u00f9c nhau cu\u00f5ng ca\u00e0n nh\u00f6\u00f5ng m\u00f6\u00f9c to\u00e1i
\u00f6u kha\u00f9c nhau.

_ \u00d1\u00f2nh lua\u00e4t to\u00e1i thie\u00e5u : (liebig)
_ Ngoa\u00f8i ca\u00f9c cha\u00e1t dinh d\u00f6\u00f4\u00f5ng ma\u00f8 sinh va\u00e4t ca\u00e0n co\u00f9 v\u00f4\u00f9i ha\u00f8m l\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng l\u00f4\u00f9n nh\u00f6 :
nit\u00f4, photpho, kali\u2026. Ca\u00f9c nguye\u00e2n to\u00e1 vi l\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng trong sinh va\u00e4t ca\u00e0n v\u00f4\u00f9i ha\u00f8m
l\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng ra\u00e1t tha\u00e1p, nh\u00f6ng chu\u00f9ng pha\u00fbi co\u00f9 ma\u00ebt trong c\u00f4 the\u00e5 sinh va\u00e4t v\u00f4\u00f9i ha\u00f8m
l\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng to\u00e1i thie\u00e5u na\u00f8o \u00f1o\u00f9, th\u00ec ca\u00f9c sinh va\u00e4t m\u00f4\u00f9i co\u00f9 the\u00e5 to\u00e0n ta\u00efi \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00efc va\u00f8 gi\u00f6\u00f5
\u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00efc t\u00ednh o\u00e5n \u00f1\u00f2nh cu\u00fba qua\u00e0n the\u00e5.

Ca\u00e2u 3 : T\u00f6\u00f4ng Quan Sinh Ho\u00efc Trong He\u00e4 Sinh Tha\u00f9i.

Quan he\u00e4 trong chuo\u00e3i dinh d\u00f6\u00f4\u00f5ng, quan he\u00e4 t\u00f6\u00f4ng quan sinh ho\u00efc \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00efc bie\u00e5u
hie\u00e4n qua 3 da\u00efng kha\u00f9c nhau
+ Quan he\u00e4 a\u00e2m : Ca\u00fb hai loa\u00f8i \u00f1e\u00e0u b\u00f2 ha\u00efi. Co\u00f9 nhie\u00e0u loa\u00f8i nh\u00f6 ha\u00f5m sinh ( loa\u00f8i
A ta\u00efo a\u00f9p l\u00f6\u00efc ga\u00e2y ha\u00efi cho loa\u00f8i B ) ; tranh sinh ( 2 loa\u00f8i tranh nhau cho\u00e3 \u00f4\u00fb,
th\u00f6\u00f9c a\u00ean hoa\u00ebc ca\u00f9c \u00f1ie\u00e0u kie\u00e4n va\u00e4t ly\u00f9 kha\u00f9c ) ; ky\u00f9 sinh : va\u00e4t d\u00f6\u00f5 \u2013 con mo\u00e0i (
t\u00f6\u00f4ng t\u00f6\u00ef nh\u00f6 kie\u00e5u quan he\u00e4 ky\u00f9 sinh hoa\u00ebc chuo\u00e3i th\u00f6\u00f9c a\u00ean cu\u00fba loa\u00f8i kia ).
+ Quan he\u00e4 d\u00f6\u00f4ng : Ca\u00fb 2 hoa\u00ebc 1 trong 2 \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00efc l\u00f4\u00efi va\u00f8 kho\u00e2ng b\u00f2 ai ha\u00efi ca\u00fb. Co\u00f9
nh\u00f6\u00f5ng da\u00efng : t\u00f6\u00f4ng sinh ( h\u00f4\u00efp ta\u00f9c \u00f1\u00f4n gia\u00fbn, ca\u00fb 2 \u00f1e\u00e0u co\u00f9 l\u00f4\u00efi nh\u00f6ng th\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8ng
lo\u00fbng le\u00fbo va\u00f8 tu\u00f8y tie\u00e4n ) ; h\u00f4\u00efp sinh ( 1 trong 2, hoa\u00ebc ca\u00fb 2 cu\u00f8ng co\u00f9 l\u00f4\u00efi, co\u00f9 t\u00ednh
cha\u00ebt che\u00f5 h\u00f4n t\u00f6\u00f4ng sinh nh\u00f6ng cu\u00f5ng kho\u00e2ng ba\u00e9t buo\u00e4c ) ; co\u00e4ng sinh ( bo\u00e5 sinh
+ Quan he\u00e4 trung t\u00ednh : Khi qua\u00e0n xa\u00f5 co\u00f8n non, quan he\u00e4 a\u00e2m pha\u00f9t trie\u00e5n ma\u00efnh
h\u00f4n, khi qua\u00e0n the\u00e5 \u00f1i \u00f1e\u00e1n xa the\u00e5 hu\u00fby die\u00e4t, quan he\u00e4 a\u00e2m cu\u00f5ng co\u00f8n ba\u00f8nh
tr\u00f6\u00f4\u00f9ng. Qua\u00f9 tr\u00ecnh pha\u00f9t trie\u00e5n cu\u00fba qua\u00e0n xa\u00f5 xu the\u00e1 tho\u00e2ng th\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8ng la\u00f8 quan he\u00e4
d\u00f6\u00f4ng ta\u00eang le\u00e2n va\u00f8 quan he\u00e4 a\u00e2m gia\u00fbm. Qua\u00e0n xa\u00f5 ca\u00f8ng la\u00e2u th\u00ec k\u00edch th\u00f6\u00f4\u00f9c
ca\u00f8ng l\u00f4\u00f9n, no\u00f9 co\u00f9 quan he\u00e4 t\u00f6\u00f4ng quan sinh ho\u00efc cu\u00f8ng ph\u00f6\u00f9c ta\u00efp va\u00f8 ca\u00f8ng
phong phu\u00f9 h\u00f4n ca\u00f9c qua\u00e0n xa\u00f5 nho\u00fb be\u00f9 hoa\u00ebc nga\u00e9n ha\u00efn.

Ca\u00e2u 4 : Vai Tro\u00f8 Cu\u00fba Th\u00f6\u00efc Va\u00e4t Trong He\u00e4 Sinh Tha\u00f9i.

+ Do\u00f8ng na\u00eang l\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng : Mo\u00e3i da\u00efng so\u00e1 na\u00eang l\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng co\u00f9 \u00edch se\u00f5 kho\u00e2ng nh\u00f6 nhau.
Tho\u00e2ng th\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8ng to\u00e0n ta\u00efi d\u00f6\u00f4\u00f9i da\u00efng \u00f1ie\u00e4n na\u00eang \u00f1e\u00e0u co\u00f9 s\u00f6\u00ef \u00edch cao, ng\u00f6\u00f4\u00efc la\u00efi la\u00f8
\u00f4\u00fb da\u00efng nhie\u00e4t na\u00eang.
Ba\u00fbn cha\u00e1t hoa\u00eft \u00f1o\u00e4ng cu\u00fba na\u00eang l\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng phu\u00ef thuo\u00e4c va\u00f8o mo\u00e4t so\u00e1 quy lua\u00e4t :

Co\u00f9 hai \u00f1\u00f2nh lua\u00e4t c\u00f4 ba\u00fbn :
_ \u00d1\u00f2nh lua\u00e4t 1 : Na\u00eang l\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng kho\u00e2ng t\u00f6\u00ef sinh ra cu\u00f5ng kho\u00e2ng t\u00f6\u00ef ma\u00e1t \u00f1i, va\u00f8 ch\u00e6
chuye\u00e5n ho\u00f9a t\u00f6\u00f8 da\u00efng na\u00f8y sang da\u00efng kha\u00f9c.
_ \u00d1\u00f2nh lua\u00e4t 2 : co\u00f8n go\u00efi la\u00f8 \u00f1\u00f2nh lua\u00e4t Entropi ( Entropi la\u00f8 he\u00e4 so\u00e1 \u00f1o s\u00f6\u00ef hao
hu\u00eft na\u00eang l\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng co\u00f9 \u00edch trong qua\u00f9 tr\u00ecnh chuye\u00e5n ho\u00f9a na\u00eang l\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng khi chuye\u00e5n
t\u00f6\u00f8 da\u00efng na\u00f8y sang da\u00efng kha\u00f9c ).

VD : Chuye\u00e5n t\u00f6\u00f8 quang na\u00eang sang ho\u00f9a na\u00eang th\u00ec hie\u00e4u sua\u00e1t chuye\u00e5n ho\u00f9a
d\u00f6\u00f4\u00f9i 100%.
_ Do\u00f8ng na\u00eang l\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng la\u00f8 s\u00f6\u00ef chu chuye\u00e5n na\u00eang l\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng trong he\u00e4 sinh tha\u00f9i bie\u00e5u
th\u00f2 b\u00f4\u00fbi qua\u00f9 tr\u00ecnh va\u00e4n chuye\u00e5n va\u00f8 hao hu\u00eft cu\u00fba na\u00eang l\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng ma\u00ebt tr\u00f4\u00f8i khi va\u00f8o
ca\u00f9c mo\u00e2 th\u00f6\u00efc va\u00e4t chuye\u00e5n qua mo\u00e2 \u00f1o\u00e4ng va\u00e4t ca\u00f9c ca\u00e1p na\u00e8m trong ca\u00f9c phe\u00e1 lie\u00e4u

Activity (4)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
1 thousand reads
Thungoc Tran liked this
chi54cd1xd liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->