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1.2.2 Properties of the Cartesian unit vectors
1.2.3 Suﬃx notation
1.2.4 Delta and epsilon
1.2.5 Einstein summation convention
1.2.6 Matrices and suﬃx notation
1.2.7 Product of two epsilons
1.3.2 Geometrical meaning of the gradient
1.3.3 Related vector diﬀerential operators
1.3.4 Vector invariance
1.3.5 Vector diﬀerential identities
1.4 Integral theorems
1.5.1 Line element
1.5.2 The Jacobian
1.5.3 Properties of Jacobians
1.5.4 Orthogonality of coordinates
1.5.5 Commonly used orthogonal coordinate systems
1.5.6 Vector calculus in orthogonal coordinates
2.1 Motivation
2.2.1 Deﬁnition
2.2.2 Principle of superposition
2.2.3 Classic examples
2.3.1 Examples of Laplace’s (or Poisson’s) equation
2.3.2 Examples of the diﬀusion equation
2.3.3 Examples of the wave equation
2.3.4 Examples of other second-order linear PDEs
2.3.5 Examples of nonlinear PDEs
2.4.1 Diﬀusion equation
2.4.3 Helmholtz equation (example)
3.1.1 Physical motivation
3.1.2 Step function and delta function
3.2 Other deﬁnitions
3.3 More on generalized functions
3.4 Diﬀerential equations containing delta functions
3.5.1 Complementary functions and particular integral
3.5.2 Initial-value and boundary-value problems
3.5.3 Green’s function for an initial-value problem
3.5.4 Green’s function for a boundary-value problem
3.5.5 Examples of Green’s function
4.1 Motivation
4.2 Relation to Fourier series
4.3 Examples
4.4 Basic properties of the Fourier transform
4.5 The delta function and the Fourier transform
4.6.1 Deﬁnition of convolution
5.2.1 Abstract deﬁnition of scalars and vectors
5.2.2 Span and linear dependence
5.2.3 Basis and dimension
5.2.4 Examples
5.2.5 Change of basis
5.3.1 Array viewpoint
5.3.2 Linear operators
5.3.3 Change of basis again
5.4.1 Deﬁnition
5.4.2 The Cauchy–Schwarz inequality
5.4.3 Inner product and bases
5.5.1 Deﬁnition and simple properties
5.5.2 Relationship with inner product
5.5.4 Special square matrices
5.6.1 Basic properties
5.6.2 Eigenvalues and eigenvectors of Hermitian matrices
5.6.3 Related results
5.6.4 The degenerate case
5.7.1 Similarity
5.7.2 Diagonalization
5.7.3 Diagonalization of a normal matrix
5.7.4 Orthogonal and unitary transformations
5.7.5 Uses of diagonalization
5.8.3 Hermitian form
5.9 Stationary property of the eigenvalues
6.1 Motivation
6.2.1 Limits of sequences
6.2.2 Cauchy’s principle of convergence
6.3.1 Meaning of convergence
6.3.2 Classic examples
6.3.4 Necessary condition for convergence
6.3.5 The comparison test
6.3.6 D’Alembert’s ratio test
6.3.7 Cauchy’s root test
6.4.1 Limits and continuity
6.4.2 The O notation
6.5 Taylor’s theorem for functions of a real variable
6.6.1 Complex diﬀerentiability
6.6.2 The Cauchy–Riemann equations
6.6.3 Analytic functions
6.6.4 Consequences of the Cauchy–Riemann equations
6.7 Taylor series for analytic functions
6.8.1 Zeros of complex functions
6.8.2 Poles
6.8.3 Essential singularities
6.8.4 Behaviour at inﬁnity
6.9.1 Circle of convergence
6.9.2 Determination of the radius of convergence
6.9.3 Examples
7.1 Motivation
7.2 Classiﬁcation
7.3.1 Linearly independent solutions
7.3.2 The Wronskian
7.3.3 Calculation of the Wronskian
7.3.4 Finding a second solution
7.4.1 Ordinary and singular points
7.4.2 Series solutions about an ordinary point
7.4.3 Series solutions about a regular singular point
7.4.4 Irregular singular points
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Mathematical Methods

# Mathematical Methods

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09/19/2012

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