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Published by: api-3772931 on Oct 16, 2008
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Quality Standards
1. Introduction

Now a days the world became smaller and smaller. Day to day new products are introduced to the market and is used by the people throughout the world. To capture the market,the producer want to establish his capability of products accepted by most of the customers, also want to have easiness at the time of production and maintenance. It can be achieved only if the producer produce goods and doing service adhering to some standard. The consumer want to ensure that the product bought by him is reliable; it is worth for the cost he/she is paying. So naturally the customer prefer the products manufactured by the companies who follow some standards or some defined process. Thus for a producer and customer the standard becomes more useful for producing and getting quality output t. Few of the standards are discussed in this article.

2. Benefits of Standards

For a production industry if the components are standardized, mass production can be done, resulting in reduction of cost. In software industry if coding standard is followed, any one in the organization can replaced any where within the organization and do coding without any difficulty. Standard components can be created and used in more than one project, which will reduce the effort required to complete the program. At the time of maintenance it will be much easier to carry out the maintenance activities. The purchaser can know the standard of the product on knowing the standards used in the manufacturing organization.

3. Types of Standards
The standards may be generally classified as below.
a. Project Level Standards

Naming Convention
GUI Standards
Coding Standards
Error Message Standards

b. Organizational Level Standards

Naming Convention
Coding Standards
Error Message Standards

c. Global Level standards
ISO 9001 2000
4. Naming conventions

The purpose of the naming convention is to make the designer, coder , tester, reviewer to understand easily what is referred or used where. Throughout the project a standard will be followed to mention database components, variables..etc. It will be easy at the time of maintenance also.

Table Name
First two letters say it is a
Next four letters say it is
transaction table.
Field Name

First three letters define the data type, the next word refers the table name, the letters after the _ refers the field name


The first letter mentions the variable is global level or form level.

5. GUI Standards

GUI standards are defined to make the product more users friendly. The training effort becomes less. Any user can learn and start working in the shortest time. The size of the forms, the color formats used in the forms, location of the command buttons, display of menus\u2026etc are some of the areas where we can define standards. Normally this will be defined for each project.

6. Coding Standards:

This is again for easy production and maintenance. For each language we can define separate coding standards and it may be used for the project. It is better to have Organizational wide standards for easy interchangeability of team members, handling change requests, bugs fixing and maintenance.

7. Error Message Standards

The error message standard can be framed to make the user friendly interface. If some thing goes wrong because of the system or operation, the message will be displayed. Normally they will be taken from a repository. It will make the display of same error message at the time of occurrence of same errors and the user also find easy to know about the error. The icons used in the error message will be more helpful for the user.

8. ISO 9001: 2000

This is globally accepted standard. In 1970s standard come into existence, but
each country has their own standard. Because of globalization of market it
becomes common that product manufactured one country is used by another

country. So most of them start realizing the need of common standards. So at the
end of 1979 a team is formed to define the standards, which is acceptable by all
the countries. As a result in 1987 March the first version of ISO 9000 standard is
published. There are 176 countries following the standards in which India is one
of them.
Standards are defined and all are following it. Day to day the requirements are
changing. The industries are also changing their activities to meet the market
requirement. So it became mandatory to revise the standards also. It is decided to
revise the ISO standards once in 5 years. Based on that in 1994 the second version
of ISO is released. Again in 2000 the next version is released, which is followed
through out the world. At the end of 2005 we are expecting new version of ISO
with minor changes.

ISO9001 2000 is framed based on eight quality management principles. They are
1. Customer Focus
2. Leadership
3. Involvement of People

4. Process Approach
5. System Approach
6. Continual Improvement

7. Factual approach to decision making.
8. Mutually beneficial supplier relationships.
Also ISO 9001 2000 has eight main clauses.
1. Scope
Divided into two sub clauses and describes the scope.
2. Normative Reference
This section contains the dated references, subsequent amendments to,
or revisions of, any of these publications do not apply\u2026etc
3. Terms and Definitions
This sections gives the terms used in the standard and definitions of

the words used.
The rest of the five clauses describe the major area of ISO 9001 2000

4. Quality Management System

This section says about the need of defining the processes, sequence and interaction of processes, availability of resources and information. This section also mentions about the requirements of documented procedures, the mandatory records to be maintained and the control of documents..

In addition to that it says about the Quality Manual which defines the
quality system of the organization.
5. Management Commitment
This is one of the main section of the ISO 9001 2000 standards. This
defines the importance of Top Management\u2019s role in implementing the

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