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A first course in abstract algebra

# A first course in abstract algebra

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09/02/2014

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Special Notation
Set Theory and Number Theory

natural numbers ........................................ 1
¡
integers................................................1
n
binomial coefcient....................................18
x
greatest integer in
x
....................................25
(
x
)
th cyclotomic polynomial ............................. 29
φ(
n
)
Euler
φ
-function ...................................... 30
¢
rational numbers ...................................... 34
£
real numbers..........................................34
¤
complex numbers......................................35
a
|
b a
is a divisor of
b
......................................37
(
a
,
b
)
gcd of
a
and
b
.........................................37
[
a
,
b
]
lcm of
a
and
b
........................................ 55
a
b
mod
m a
congruent to
b
mod
m
................................57
X
Y
is subset of
....................................... 81
X
¥
Y
is proper subset of
.................................81
¦
empty set.............................................81
X
×
cartesian product ...................................... 841
X
identity function on set
.............................. 84
|
X
|
number of elements in ﬁnite set
.......................84im
image of function
................................... 85
f
:
a
b
(
a
)
=
b
.............................................86
a
b a
is equivalent to
b
.................................... 96
[
a
]
equivalence class of
a
................................. 97
[
a
]
congruence class of
a
.................................168
§
m
integers modulo
m
....................................168i

x
1
,..,
x
i
,..,
x
n
x
1
,...,
x
n
with
x
i
deleted.............................330
δ
ij
Kronecker delta ...................................... 370
Group Theory
S
X
symmetric group on set
.............................103
S
n
symmetric group on
n
letters .......................... 103sgn
(α)
signum of permutation
α
..............................117GL
(
n
,
)
general linear group .................................. 128
Isom
(
£
2
)
group of isometries of the plane........................136
O
2
(
£
)
orthogonal group of the plane..........................136
D
2
n
dihedral group of order 2
n
.............................141
(
2
,
R
)
stochastic group......................................144
V
four-group...........................................145
H
G
is subgroup of
G
...................................145
H
<
G
is proper subgroup of
G
............................ 145
A
n
alternating group on
n
letters .......................... 147
a
coset................................................151
[
G
:
]
index of
in
G
......................................153SL
(
n
,
)
special linear group...................................154
G
=
isomorphic .......................................... 156ker
kernel of
.......................................... 160
H

G
is normal subgroup of
G
............................161
Z
(
G
)
center of group
G
.................................... 163
Q
quaternion group of order 8 ........................... 164
G
/
H
quotient group ....................................... 176
H
×
direct product........................................183
G
x
stabilizer of
x
........................................194
¡
(
x
)
orbit of
x
............................................ 194
G
(
a
)
centralizer of
a
G
.................................. 195GL
(
)
all automorphisms of vector space
................... 381
H
direct sum ........................................... 473
ni
=
1
S
i
sum of subgroups .................................... 477
ni
=
1
S
i
direct sum ........................................... 477
N
G
(
H
)
normalizer of
G
.................................489UT
(
n
,
)
unitriangular group ................................... 493
Commutative Rings and Linear Algebra
I
or
n
identity matrix ....................................... 128
¡
[
i
]
Gaussian integers.....................................217
¢
(
£
)
ring of functions on
£
................................ 222


(
X
)
Boolean ring.........................................226
(
R
)
group of units in ring
R
............................... 226
¢
(
R
)
ring of functions on ring
R
............................ 227
¡
p
,
¡
q
ﬁnite ﬁeld having
p
, or
q
, elements .................... 228Frac
(
R
)
fraction ﬁeld of domain
R
.............................231
R
×
nonzero elements in ring
R
............................232deg
(
)
degree of polynomial
(
x
)
............................ 233
[
x
]
polynomial ring over
. ...............................237
(
x
)
ﬁeld of rational functions over
....................... 238
[[
x
]]
power series ring over
. ..............................240
R
=
S
isomorphic .......................................... 241
(
a
1
,...,
a
n
)
ideal generated by
a
1
,...,
a
n
..........................246
(
a
)
principal ideal........................................246
R
×
S
direct product........................................249
a
+
coset................................................290
R
/
I
quotient ring.........................................291
(
z
)
z
to ﬁeld
. .................................297
A
B
A
B
Kronecker product....................................309Mat
n
(
)
all
n
×
n
matrices over
.............................. 323
A
transpose ............................................ 325
Ro
w(
A
)
row space of matrix
A
................................ 329
Col
(
A
)
column space of matrix
A
............................. 329dim
(
)
dimension of vector space.............................336
E
/
eld extension ....................................... 341
[
E
:
]
degree of ﬁeld extension
/
. .........................341Hom
(
,
)
all linear transformations
..................... 367
[
]
X
matrix of transformation
relative to bases
,
........370det
(
A
)
determinant..........................................385tr
(
A
)
trace ................................................ 392Supp
(w)
support of
w
n
.................................... 408Gal
(
E
/
)
Galois group of
/
. .................................452Var
(
I
)
algebraic set of ideal
................................540Id
(
)
ideal of algebraic set
............................... 544
√
I
..................................... 545
DEG
(
)
multidegree of polynomial
(
x
1
,...,
x
n
)
...............559