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optik konu anlatım!!!!!!

optik konu anlatım!!!!!!

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Published by api-3765777

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Published by: api-3765777 on Oct 16, 2008
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A ) Bu \u00dcnitede \u0130\u015flenecek Konular
\ue000 I\u015f\u0131\u011f\u0131n tan\u0131m\u0131
\ue000 I\u015f\u0131\u011f\u0131n yay\u0131lmas\u0131
\ue000 Yans\u0131ma ve yans\u0131ma kanunlar\u0131
\ue000 D\u00fcz, \u00e7ukur ve t\u00fcmsek aynalar
\ue000 Aynalarda \u00f6zel \u0131\u015f\u0131nlar , g\u00f6r\u00fcnt\u00fcler ve bunlar\u0131n \u00f6zellikleri

\ue000I\u015f\u0131\u011f\u0131n k\u0131r\u0131lmas\u0131 ve k\u0131r\u0131lma kanunlar\u0131
\ue000 \u0130nce ve kal\u0131n kenarl\u0131 mercekler. Bunlarda \u00f6zel \u0131\u015f\u0131nlar ve g\u00f6r\u00fcnt\u00fc \u00f6zellikleri
\ue000 Prizmalar ve \u00f6zellikleri

B ) Bu \u00c7al\u0131\u015fmalar Sonunda \u015eunlar\u0131 Kavram\u0131\u015f olman\u0131z gerekir :

\ue000 I\u015f\u0131\u011f\u0131n nas\u0131l yay\u0131ld\u0131\u011f\u0131n\u0131 ve yans\u0131ma kanunlar\u0131n\u0131
\ue000 I\u015f\u0131k \u0131\u015f\u0131n\u0131, saydaml\u0131k, \u0131\u015f\u0131k h\u0131z\u0131 gibi temel kavramlar\u0131
\ue000 G\u00f6lge ve g\u00f6lge olu\u015fumunun nas\u0131l ger\u00e7ekle\u015fti\u011fini
\ue000 D\u00fcz aynalarda g\u00f6r\u00fcnt\u00fc olu\u015fumunu
\ue000 K\u00fcresel aynalarda \u00f6zel \u0131\u015f\u0131nlar\u0131n nas\u0131l bir yol izledi\u011fini ve olu\u015fan g\u00f6r\u00fcnt\u00fclerin \u00f6zelliklerini
\ue000 K\u0131r\u0131lma kurallar\u0131n\u0131
\ue000 S\u0131n\u0131r a\u00e7\u0131s\u0131, tam yans\u0131ma gibi k\u0131r\u0131lma ile ilgili temel kavramlar\u0131
\ue000 Merceklerde \u00f6zel \u0131\u015f\u0131nlar\u0131n nas\u0131l bir yol izledi\u011fini ve olu\u015fan g\u00f6r\u00fcnt\u00fclerin \u00f6zelliklerini
\ue000 Prizmalar\u0131 ve bunlardan ge\u00e7en \u0131\u015f\u0131nlar\u0131n izledikleri yolu

C ) Sorular\u0131n \u00d6zellikleri :
\ue000Gelme ve yans\u0131ma a\u00e7\u0131s\u0131na ba\u011fl\u0131 olarak sorulan sorular
\ue000 K\u00fcresel aynalarda \u0131\u015f\u0131nlar\u0131n izledi\u011fi yol ve bu aynalarda olu\u015fan g\u00f6r\u00fcnt\u00fclerin \u00f6zelliklerine
dayal\u0131 sorular

\ue000 Merceklerle ilgili \u00f6zel \u0131\u015f\u0131nlar ve g\u00f6r\u00fcnt\u00fc \u00f6zelliklerinden sorular
\ue000 Prizmalarda k\u0131r\u0131lma a\u00e7\u0131s\u0131 esas al\u0131n\u0131p sorulan a\u00e7\u0131 ve \u0131\u015f\u0131n\u0131n izleyece\u011fi yol ile ilgili sorular
\ue000 G\u00f6lge ile ilgili olarak da tam ve yar\u0131m g\u00f6lgenin b\u00fcy\u00fcy\u00fcp k\u00fc\u00e7\u00fclmesiyle ilgili sorular

sorulmaktad\u0131r.
D ) Son 6 y\u0131lda konuyla ilgili sorulan sorular\u0131n da\u011f\u0131l\u0131m\u0131 :
1995 1996
1997 1998 1999

2000
FL
EML
DPY
A\u00d6L
LGS

www.testkulubu.com
OPTIK
OPT\u0130K

I\u015f\u0131k, \u0131\u015f\u0131k kayna\u011f\u0131ndan yay\u0131lan bir enerji
\u00e7e\u015fididir. I\u015f\u0131k olaylar\u0131n\u0131 inceleyen fizik dal\u0131na
iseopti k denir.I\u015f\u0131k ile ilgili s\u0131k\u00e7a kar\u015f\u0131la\u015f\u0131lacak
kavramlar ise \u015funlard\u0131r;

1 . I\u015f\u0131k Kayna\u011f\u0131 : I\u015f\u0131k vererek \u00e7evresini

ayd\u0131nlatan cisimlerdir. \u00c7evresindeki cisimlere,
herhangi bir etkiye u\u011framadan \u0131\u015f\u0131k veren
cisimlere"do\u011fal \u0131\u015f\u0131k kayna\u011f\u0131 " denir.( G\u00fcne\u015f
ve y\u0131ld\u0131zlar gibi ) Lamba, mum gibi yapay
olarak olu\u015fturulan cisimlere ise"suni(yapay)

\u0131\u015f\u0131k kayna\u011f\u0131" d e ni r.
2 . I\u015f\u0131k I\u015f\u0131n\u0131 : I\u015f\u0131\u011f\u0131n yay\u0131ld\u0131\u011f\u0131n\u0131 g\u00f6steren
do\u011frulara \u0131\u015f\u0131k \u0131\u015f\u0131n\u0131 yada k\u0131saca \u0131\u015f\u0131n denir.
3 . I\u015f\u0131\u011f\u0131n Yay\u0131lmas\u0131 : I\u015f\u0131k \u0131\u015f\u0131nlar\u0131 do\u011frusal

yolla yay\u0131l\u0131r. G\u00f6lge, yar\u0131 g\u00f6lge, G\u00fcne\u015f ve Ay
tutulmalar\u0131 \u0131\u015f\u0131\u011f\u0131n do\u011frusal yolla yay\u0131lmas\u0131
sonucu olu\u015fur.

4 . Ayd\u0131nlat\u0131lm\u0131\u015f Cisim : Bir \u0131\u015f\u0131k kayna\u011f\u0131ndan
\u0131\u015f\u0131k alarak g\u00f6r\u00fcn\u00fcr hale ge\u00e7en cisimlere denir.
5 . Saydam Cisimler : Cam, hava, su gibi ,
\u0131\u015f\u0131\u011f\u0131 tam olarak ge\u00e7iren cisimlere denir.
6 . Yar\u0131 Saydam Cisimler : Buzlu cam, ya\u011fl\u0131
ka\u011f\u0131t gibi, \u0131\u015f\u0131\u011f\u0131 k\u0131smen di\u011fer tarafa ge\u00e7iren
cisimlerdir.
7 . Saydam Olmayan Cisimler : Ta\u015f, tahta,
demir gibi \u0131\u015f\u0131\u011f\u0131 ge\u00e7irmeyen cisimler denir.
8 . I\u015f\u0131k H\u0131z\u0131 : I\u015f\u0131\u011f\u0131n birim zamandaki h\u0131z\u0131d\u0131r.
I\u015f\u0131\u011f\u0131n h\u0131z\u0131 ortamlara g\u00f6re farkl\u0131l\u0131k g\u00f6sterir.I\u015f\u0131k;

Havada : 300.000 km/s Camda : 200.000 km/s Suda : 225.000 km/s

9 . G\u00f6lge : I\u015f\u0131k kayna\u011f\u0131 \u00f6n\u00fcne saydam

olmayan bir cisim konuldu\u011funda, engelin arka
taraf\u0131 ayd\u0131nlanmaz. Dolay\u0131s\u0131yla engelin arka
taraf\u0131nda g\u00f6lge olu\u015fur. Engel arkas\u0131ndaki hi\u00e7
\u0131\u015f\u0131k almayan b\u00f6lgeye " tam g\u00f6lge ", tam g\u00f6lge
\u00e7evresindeki k\u0131smen \u0131\u015f\u0131k alan b\u00f6lgeye ise"

yar\u0131 g\u00f6lge" d e n i r.

Tam ve yar\u0131 g\u00f6lge \u00e7izilirken ;
Tam g\u00f6lgeyi \u00e7izmek i\u00e7in, \u0131\u015f\u0131k kayna\u011f\u0131n\u0131n \u00fcst
kenar\u0131ndan, cismin \u00fcst kenar\u0131na \u0131\u015f\u0131nlar

g\u00f6nderilir. I\u015f\u0131nlar\u0131n ekran \u00fczerine d\u00fc\u015ft\u00fc\u011f\u00fc
k\u0131s\u0131mda tam g\u00f6lge olu\u015fur.

Yar\u0131 g\u00f6lgeyi \u00e7izmek i\u00e7in ise; \u0131\u015f\u0131k kayna\u011f\u0131n\u0131n
kenar\u0131ndan engelin \u00e7apraz kenarlar\u0131na \u0131\u015f\u0131nlar
g\u00f6nderilir. I\u015f\u0131nlar\u0131n ekran \u00fczerine d\u00fc\u015ft\u00fc\u011f\u00fc
k\u0131s\u0131mda yar\u0131 g\u00f6lge olu\u015fur.

Tam ve yar\u0131 g\u00f6lge \u015fu \u015fekilde g\u00f6r\u00fcn\u00fcr;
NOT : Olu\u015fan g\u00f6lgenin b\u00fcy\u00fckl\u00fc\u011f\u00fc, \u0131\u015f\u0131k
kayna\u011f\u0131 ile engel aras\u0131ndaki uzakl\u0131\u011fa, ayr\u0131ca,
\u0131\u015f\u0131k kayna\u011f\u0131 ve engelin b\u00fcy\u00fckl\u00fc\u011f\u00fcne ba\u011fl\u0131d\u0131r.
YANSIMA

Bir y\u00fczeye \u00e7arpan \u0131\u015f\u0131k \u0131\u015f\u0131nlar\u0131n\u0131n do\u011frultu ve
y\u00f6n de\u011fi\u015ftirmelerine"y ans\u0131 ma " denir.
Yans\u0131ma, yans\u0131t\u0131c\u0131 y\u00fczeyin durumuna g\u00f6re,
d\u00fczg\u00fcn ve da\u011f\u0131n\u0131k yans\u0131ma olarak ikiye ayr\u0131l\u0131r.
E\u011fer \u0131\u015f\u0131\u011f\u0131n \u00e7arpt\u0131\u011f\u0131 y\u00fczey p\u00fcr\u00fczs\u00fcz ise d\u00fczg\u00fcn
yans\u0131ma, p\u00fcr\u00fczl\u00fc ise da\u011f\u0131n\u0131k yans\u0131ma
ger\u00e7ekle\u015fir.

www.testkulubu.com
Engel
I\u015f\u0131k
kayna\u011f\u0131
Tam
g\u00f6lge
perde
Yar\u0131
g\u00f6lge
perde
Engel
I\u015f\u0131k
kayna\u011f\u0131
Tam g\u00f6lge
Yar\u0131 g\u00f6lge
D\u00fczg\u00fcn Yans\u0131ma
Da\u011f\u0131n\u0131k Yans\u0131ma
Yans\u0131ma Kanunlar\u0131

1 \u2013 Gelen \u0131\u015f\u0131n, yans\u0131yan \u0131\u015f\u0131n ve normal ayn\u0131
d\u00fczlemdedir.
2 \u2013 Gelme a\u00e7\u0131s\u0131, yans\u0131ma a\u00e7\u0131s\u0131na e\u015fittir.
3 \u2013 Normal do\u011frultusunda gelen \u0131\u015f\u0131nlar, kendi
\u00fczerinden yans\u0131r.

NORMAL (N) : Y\u00fczeye dik olarak geldi\u011fi var
say\u0131lan do\u011frudur.
AYNALAR

\u00dczerine gelen \u0131\u015f\u0131\u011f\u0131 belirli kurallara g\u00f6re
yans\u0131tan cisimlereayna denir. Aynalar d\u00fczlem
ve k\u00fcresel olmak \u00fczere 2 grupta incelenir;

Aynalar
D\u00dcZ AYNADA YANSIMA VE G\u00d6R\u00dcNT\u00dc
OLU\u015eUMU

D\u00fcz ve saydam cisimlerin bir y\u00fczeyinin
parlat\u0131lmas\u0131yla olu\u015fan cisme d\u00fcz ayna denir.
D\u00fcz aynalarda yans\u0131ma, yans\u0131ma
kanunlar\u0131ndaki gibi ger\u00e7ekle\u015fir.

\u00d6RNEK :Yandaki

\u015fekilde d\u00fczlem ayna
ile \u0131\u015f\u0131\u011f\u0131n gelme
do\u011frultusu aras\u0131nda
60\u02da a\u00e7\u0131 vard\u0131r. Bu
durumda \u0131\u015f\u0131\u011f\u0131n
yans\u0131ma a\u00e7\u0131s\u0131 ka\u00e7 derecedir?

A ) 60
B ) 30
C ) 15
D )0
\u00c7\u00d6Z\u00dcM : Yans\u0131ma a\u00e7\u0131s\u0131, normal ile yans\u0131yan

\u0131\u015f\u0131n aras\u0131ndaki a\u00e7\u0131d\u0131r. Ayn\u0131 zamanda da
yans\u0131ma a\u00e7\u0131s\u0131 gelme a\u00e7\u0131s\u0131na e\u015fittir. O y\u00fczden
\u00f6nce gelme a\u00e7\u0131s\u0131n\u0131 bulal\u0131m;

x = 90 \u2013 60
x = 30\u02da ( Gelme a\u00e7\u0131s\u0131 )

Gelme a\u00e7\u0131s\u0131 yans\u0131ma
a\u00e7\u0131s\u0131na e\u015fit oldu\u011fundan;
Yans\u0131ma a\u00e7\u0131s\u0131 =30\u02da olur

D\u00dcZ AYNALARDA G\u00d6R\u00dcNT\u00dc VE
OLU\u015eUMU

D\u00fcz aynalarda g\u00f6r\u00fcnt\u00fc olu\u015fumu, aynaya
d\u00fc\u015ferek yans\u0131yan \u0131\u015f\u0131nlar\u0131n uzant\u0131lar\u0131n\u0131n
kesi\u015fmesiyle olu\u015fur.

D\u00fcz Aynada Olu\u015fan G\u00f6r\u00fcnt\u00fcn\u00fcn \u00d6zellikleri;

1. G\u00f6r\u00fcnt\u00fc zahiri ( sanal ) d\u0131r.
2. D \u00fc z d \u00fc r.
3.Ayna gerisindedir.
4. Cismin boyu ile g\u00f6r\u00fcnt\u00fcn\u00fcn boyu ayn\u0131d\u0131r.
5.Cismin aynaya uzakl\u0131\u011f\u0131 ile g\u00f6r\u00fcnt\u00fcn\u00fcn

aynaya olan uzakl\u0131\u011f\u0131 ayn\u0131d\u0131r.
6. Cismin sa\u011f\u0131 g\u00f6r\u00fcnt\u00fcn\u00fcn soludur.
7.Cisim aynaya hangi h\u0131zla yakla\u015f\u0131rsa,
g\u00f6r\u00fcnt\u00fc de ayn\u0131 h\u0131zla yakla\u015f\u0131r. K\u0131sacas\u0131,
g\u00f6r\u00fcnt\u00fc, cismin aynaya g\u00f6re simetri\u011fidir.
NOT : Yans\u0131yan \u0131\u015f\u0131nlar\u0131n uzant\u0131lar\u0131n\u0131n
kesi\u015fmesiyle olu\u015fan g\u00f6r\u00fcnt\u00fc zahiri, yani
sanald\u0131r. Bu g\u00f6r\u00fcnt\u00fcler aynan\u0131n arkas\u0131nda
olu\u015fur.
D\u00fcz Aynalarda Baz\u0131 \u00d6zellikler ;
1. Bir d\u00fcz aynaya gelen \u0131\u015f\u0131n sabit kalmak \u015fart\u0131
ile, ayna\u03b1 kadar d\u00f6nd\u00fcr\u00fcl\u00fcrse, yans\u0131yan \u0131\u015f\u0131n
2\u03b1 kadar sapar.
2. Kesi\u015fen iki d\u00fcz ayna aras\u0131ndaki cismin, bu
aynalardaki g\u00f6r\u00fcnt\u00fc say\u0131s\u0131;
1
360
n
\u2212
\u03b1
=
ba\u011f\u0131nt\u0131s\u0131yla bulunur.
n= G\u00f6r\u00fcnt\u00fc say\u0131s\u0131
www.testkulubu.com
\u03b1\u03b2
Yans\u0131yan
\u0131\u015f\u0131n
Gelen
\u0131\u015f\u0131n
O
N
Gelme
a\u00e7\u0131s\u0131
Yans\u0131ma
a\u00e7\u0131s\u0131
D\u00fczlem a
y
na
K\u00fcresel a
y
na
\u00c7
ukur a
y
na T\u00fcmsek a
y
na
60\u02da
A
I
Ayna
60\u02da
A
I
Ayna
N
30\u02da
\u03b1
\u03b1
Cisim
G\u00f6r\u00fcnt\u00fc
Ayna
UYARI : Yans\u0131yan \u0131\u015f\u0131nlar\u0131n

kesi\u015fmesiyle olu\u015fan g\u00f6r\u00fcnt\u00fc ger\u00e7ek ,
yans\u0131yan \u0131\u015f\u0131nlar\u0131n uzant\u0131lar\u0131n\u0131n
kesi\u015fmesiyle olu\u015fan g\u00f6r\u00fcnt\u00fc ise

zahiridir
.
\u03b1
2

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