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ky thuat trong dau cove

ky thuat trong dau cove

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Published by: api-3773922 on Oct 16, 2008
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03/18/2014

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C\u00c2Y \u0110\u1eacU COVE
T\u00ean khoa h\u1ecdc: Phaseolis vulgaris L.
H\u1ecd \u0110\u1eadu: Leguminosae, Fabaceae

ThS. Tr\u1ea7n Th\u1ecb Ba
B\u1ed9 m\u00f4n Khoa H\u1ecdc C\u00e2y Tr\u1ed3ng
Khoa N\u00f4ng Nghi\u1ec7p & Sinh h\u1ecdc \u1ee9ng d\u1ee5ng, Tr\u01b0\u1eddng \u0110HCT

1. GI\u1edaI THI\u1ec6U

\u0110\u1eadu cove c\u00f3 ngu\u1ed3n g\u1ed1c t\u1eeb Trung M\u1ef9 v\u00e0 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c tr\u1ed3ng c\u00e1ch nay h\u01a1n 600 n\u0103m. Tr\u00e1i non ch\u1ee9a
kho\u1ea3ng 2,5% \u0111\u1ea1m, 0,2% ch\u1ea5t b\u00e9o, 7% ch\u1ea5t \u0111\u01b0\u1eddng b\u1ed9t v\u00e0 \u0111\u1eb7c bi\u1ec7t nhi\u1ec1u vitamin A v\u00e0 C
v\u00e0 ch\u1ea5t kho\u00e1ng, tr\u00e1i c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 d\u00f9ng \u0103n t\u01b0\u01a1i, \u0111\u00f3ng h\u1ed9p v\u00e0 \u0111\u00f4ng l\u1ea1nh. \u1ede c\u00e1c n\u01b0\u1edbc Ch\u00e2u \u00c1 nh\u01b0
\u00c2n \u0110\u1ed9, Mi\u1ebfn \u0110i\u1ec7n, Nepal, Sri-Lanka, Bangladesh h\u1ed9t \u0111\u1eadu cove kh\u00f4 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng trong
c\u00e1c b\u1eefa \u0103n ki\u00eang. \u0110\u1eadu cove l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t trong nh\u1eefng lo\u1ea1i hoa m\u00e0u th\u00edch nghi trong h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng
lu\u00e2n canh v\u1edbi l\u00faa v\u00e0 l\u00e0 lo\u1ea1i \u0111\u1eadu rau quan tr\u1ecdng b\u1eadc nh\u1ea5t v\u00ec ph\u00e2n b\u1ed1 r\u1ed9ng kh\u1eafp, s\u1ea3n l\u01b0\u1ee3ng
t\u01b0\u01a1ng \u0111\u1ed1i l\u1edbn v\u00e0 c\u00f3 kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng l\u00e0 ngu\u1ed3n thu nh\u1eadp kh\u00e1 cao cho c\u00e1c n\u00f4ng h\u1ed9.

2. \u0110\u1eb6C T\u00cdNH SINH H\u1eccC

\u0110\u1eadu cove l\u00e0 c\u00e2y h\u1eb1ng ni\u00ean, th\u00e2n th\u1ea3o, r\u1ec5 ch\u00ednh m\u1ecdc s\u00e2u n\u00ean c\u00e2y c\u00f3 kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng ch\u1ecbu h\u1ea1n t\u1ed1t,
r\u1ec5 ph\u1ee5 c\u00f3 nhi\u1ec1u n\u1ed1t s\u1ea7n ch\u1ee7 y\u1ebfu t\u1eadp trung \u1edf \u0111\u1ed9 s\u00e2u kho\u1ea3ng 20 cm. Th\u00e2n c\u00f3 2 d\u1ea1ng: th\u00e2n
sinh tr\u01b0\u1edfng h\u1eefu h\u1ea1n v\u00e0 v\u00f4 h\u1ea1n. L\u00e1 k\u00e9p c\u00f3 3 l\u00e1 ph\u1ee5 v\u1edbi cu\u1ed1n d\u00e0i, m\u1eb7t l\u00e1 r\u1ea5t \u00edt l\u00f4ng t\u01a1.
Ch\u00f9m hoa m\u1ecdc \u1edf n\u00e1ch l\u00e1 trung b\u00ecnh c\u00f3 t\u1eeb 2 - 8 hoa.

Sau khi tr\u1ed3ng 35 - 40 ng\u00e0y \u0111\u00e3 c\u00f3 hoa n\u1edf, hoa l\u01b0\u1ee1ng t\u00ednh t\u1ef1 th\u1ee5 ph\u1ea5n kho\u1ea3ng 95% n\u00ean
vi\u1ec7c \u0111\u1ec3 gi\u1ed1ng r\u1ea5t d\u1ec5 d\u00e0ng. Tr\u00e1i \u0111\u1eadu \u0103n t\u01b0\u01a1i thu ho\u1ea1ch t\u1eeb 10 - 13 ng\u00e0y sau khi hoa n\u1edf. H\u1ed9t
\u0111\u1eadu to, tr\u1ecdng l\u01b0\u1ee3ng 1.000 h\u1ed9t 250 - 450g.

\u0110\u1eadu cove l\u00e0 c\u00e2y tr\u1ed3ng ch\u1ecbu \u1ea5m n\u00ean canh t\u00e1c \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c trong \u0111i\u1ec1u ki\u1ec7n \u1ea5m \u00e1p c\u1ee7a v\u00f9ng nhi\u1ec7t

\u0111\u1edbi v\u00e0 \u00e1 nhi\u1ec7t \u0111\u1edbi, \u0111\u1eadu kh\u00f4ng ch\u1ecbu \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c gi\u00e1 r\u00e9t.
3. GI\u1ed0NG
Ph\u00e2n bi\u1ec7t theo d\u1ea1ng h\u00ecnh c\u1ee7a c\u00e2y c\u00f3 2 lo\u1ea1i:

* \u0110\u1eadu cove l\u00f9n (sinh tr\u01b0\u1edfng h\u1eefu h\u1ea1n): Nh\u00f3m n\u1ea7y kh\u00f4ng c\u00f3 gi\u1ed1ng \u0111\u1ecba ph\u01b0\u01a1ng, c\u00e1c gi\u1ed1ng
nh\u1eadp n\u1ed9i c\u1ee7a Nh\u1eadt v\u00e0 \u0110\u00e0i Loan th\u00edch h\u1ee3p tr\u1ed3ng quanh n\u0103m \u1edf v\u00f9ng cao, gi\u1ed1ng ch\u1ecbu n\u00f3ng
tr\u1ed3ng \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c v\u1ee5 \u0110\u00f4ng Xu\u00e2n \u1edf v\u00f9ng \u0111\u1ed3ng b\u1eb1ng. Gi\u1ed1ng \u0111\u1eadu l\u00f9n r\u1ea5t thu\u1eadn l\u1ee3i cho vi\u1ec7c canh
t\u00e1c \u1edf v\u00f9ng c\u00f3 gi\u00f3 m\u1ea1nh, d\u1ec5 tr\u1ed3ng xen v\u1edbi hoa m\u00e0u kh\u00e1c \u0111\u1ec3 t\u0103ng thu ho\u1ea1ch tr\u00ean di\u1ec7n t\u00edch
ho\u1eb7c tr\u1ed3ng \u1edf nh\u1eefng n\u01a1i kh\u00f3 kh\u0103n v\u1ec1 c\u00e2y l\u00e0m gi\u00e0n. C\u00e1c gi\u1ed1ng nh\u1eadp n\u1ed9i c\u1ee7a Nh\u1eadt t\u1ecf ra
th\u00edch h\u1ee3p n\u00ean \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c c\u00e1c c\u00f4ng ty gi\u1ed1ng ch\u1ecdn l\u1ecdc, nh\u00e2n gi\u1ed1ng v\u00e0 ph\u1ed5 bi\u1ebfn r\u1ed9ng r\u00e3i. \u0110\u1eb7c t\u00ednh
chung c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c gi\u1ed1ng \u0111\u1eadu cove l\u00f9n l\u00e0 th\u1ea5p c\u00e2y 50 - 60 cm, cho thu ho\u1ea1ch s\u1edbm 40 - 50
NSKG, th\u1eddi gian thu ho\u1ea1ch 30 - 45 ng\u00e0y, tr\u00e1i d\u00e0i, th\u1eb3ng, m\u00e0u xanh trung b\u00ecnh \u0111\u1ebfn xanh

\u0111\u1eadm. C\u00e1c gi\u1ed1ng tr\u1ed3ng hi\u1ec7n nay \u1edf v\u00f9ng cao cho n\u0103ng su\u1ea5t v\u00e0 ph\u1ea9m ch\u1ea5t kh\u00f4ng thua k\u00e9m
\u0111\u1eadu leo, 18 - 22 t\u1ea5n/ha.
* \u0110\u1eadu cove leo (sinh tr\u01b0\u1edfng v\u00f4 h\u1ea1n): th\u00e2n d\u00e0i 2,5 - 3 m, trong canh t\u00e1c ph\u1ea3i l\u00e0m gi\u00e0n. C\u00e1c
gi\u1ed1ng hi\u1ec7n \u0111ang \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c \u01b0a chu\u1ed9ng:

- Gi\u1ed1ng \u0111\u1eadu cove \u0110\u00e0i Loan h\u1ea1t \u0111en do c\u00f4ng ty Gi\u1ed1ng c\u00e2y Tr\u1ed3ng Mi\u1ec1n Nam ch\u1ecdn l\u1ecdc v\u00e0 s\u1ea3n xu\u1ea5t. Gi\u1ed1ng ch\u1ecbu n\u00f3ng gi\u1ecfi, kh\u00e1ng b\u1ec7nh t\u1ed1t, tr\u1ed3ng \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c \u1edf \u0111\u1ed3ng b\u1eb1ng c\u0169ng nh\u01b0 v\u00f9ng cao, b\u1eaft \u0111\u1ea7u cho thu ho\u1ea1ch tr\u00e1i 50 - 55 ng\u00e0y sau khi tr\u1ed3ng; ph\u00e1t hoa d\u00e0i, nhi\u1ec1u hoa, \u0111\u1eadu tr\u00e1i t\u1ed1t n\u00ean cho nhi\u1ec1u tr\u00e1i. Tr\u00e1i th\u1eb3ng, d\u00e0i 16 - 17 cm, m\u00e0u xanh nh\u1ea1t, ph\u1ea9m ch\u1ea5t ngon, ph\u00f9 h\u1ee3p v\u1edbi th\u1ecb hi\u1ebfu.

- Gi\u1ed1ng cove Th\u00e1i (Chiatai) cho tr\u00e1i m\u00e0u xanh trung b\u00ecnh, d\u00e0i 14 - 16 cm, ch\u1ea5t l\u01b0\u1ee3ng tr\u00e1i
ngon ng\u1ecdt, c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 tr\u1ed3ng quanh n\u0103m.
- Gi\u1ed1ng cove Nh\u1eadt (Takii): h\u1ea1t n\u00e2u v\u00e0ng, hoa tr\u1eafng, tr\u00e1i d\u00e0i, m\u00e0u xanh nh\u1ea1t, ph\u1ea9m ch\u1ea5t

ngon, r\u1ea5t \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c \u01b0a chu\u1ed9ng, th\u00edch h\u1ee3p v\u1ee5 \u0110\u00f4ng-Xu\u00e2n.
C\u00e1c gi\u1ed1ng k\u1ec3 tr\u00ean \u0111\u1ec1u l\u00e0 gi\u1ed1ng tr\u00e1i tr\u00f2n.
4. K\u1ef8 THU\u1eacT CANH T\u00c1C
4.1. Th\u1eddi v\u1ee5
V\u00f9ng \u0110BSCL c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 tr\u1ed3ng \u0111\u1eadu cove quanh n\u0103m tr\u00ean \u0111\u1ea5t r\u1ea9y, nh\u01b0ng v\u1ee5 ch\u00ednh l\u00e0 v\u1ee5 \u0110\u00f4ng

xu\u00e2n gieo v\u00e0o th\u00e1ng 11 - 12 dl, l\u00fac n\u1ea7y th\u1eddi ti\u1ebft m\u00e1t m\u1ebd kh\u00f4 r\u00e1o n\u00ean hoa tr\u00e1i ph\u00e1t tri\u1ec3n thu\u1eadn l\u1ee3i, cho n\u0103ng su\u1ea5t cao nh\u1ea5t. V\u1ee5 H\u00e8-Thu n\u00ean gieo s\u1edbm v\u00e0o \u0111\u1ea7u m\u00f9a m\u01b0a kho\u1ea3ng th\u00e1ng 5 dl, v\u00ec gieo c\u00e0ng tr\u1ec5 m\u01b0a nhi\u1ec1u b\u1ec7nh c\u00e0ng ph\u00e1t tri\u1ec3n n\u00ean n\u0103ng su\u1ea5t th\u1ea5p.

4.2. L\u00e0m \u0111\u1ea5t, gieo h\u1ea1t

Ch\u1ecdn \u0111\u1ea5t cao, tho\u00e1t n\u01b0\u1edbc t\u1ed1t, c\u00e0y b\u1eeba k\u1ef9 v\u00e0 l\u00e0m s\u1ea1ch c\u1ecf; nh\u1eefng n\u01a1i \u0111\u1ea5t th\u1ea5p hay tr\u1ed3ng
m\u00f9a m\u01b0a ph\u1ea3i l\u00ean l\u00edp cao \u0111\u1ec3 d\u1ec5 tho\u00e1t n\u01b0\u1edbc. N\u00ean tr\u1ed3ng h\u00e0ng \u0111\u01a1n tr\u00ean l\u00edp, h\u00e0ng c\u00e1ch h\u00e0ng
1,2 - 1,4 m. Tr\u1ed3ng h\u00e0ng \u0111\u01a1n \u0111\u1eadu cho th\u1eddi gian thu ho\u1ea1ch tr\u00e1i k\u00e9o d\u00e0i h\u01a1n so v\u1edbi tr\u1ed3ng
h\u00e0ng \u0111\u00f4i v\u00e0 d\u1ec5 d\u00e0ng ch\u0103m s\u00f3c, kho\u1ea3ng c\u00e1ch l\u1ed5 tr\u00ean h\u00e0ng 20 -25 cm, m\u1ed7i l\u1ed5 \u0111\u1ec3 2 - 3 c\u00e2y.
M\u1eadt \u0111\u1ed9 tr\u1ed3ng 70.000- 120.000 c\u00e2y/ha. L\u01b0\u1ee3ng h\u1ea1t gi\u1ed1ng gieo 40 - 60 kg/ha, khi gieo d\u00f9ng
ch\u00e0y t\u1ec9a x\u00f4m l\u1ed5 ho\u1eb7c cu\u1ed1c b\u1ed5 h\u1ed1c, gieo xong l\u1ea5p h\u1ed9t b\u1eb1ng tro tr\u1ea5u. Tr\u1ed3ng \u0111\u1eadu cove nh\u1ea5t l\u00e0
trong m\u00f9a m\u01b0a c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 ph\u1ee7 \u0111\u1ea5t b\u1eb1ng m\u00e0ng ph\u1ee7 plastic \u0111\u1ec3 c\u00e2y \u00edt b\u1ecb b\u1ec7nh v\u00e0 cho n\u0103ng su\u1ea5t
cao.

4.3. Ch\u0103m s\u00f3c
4.3.1. B\u00f3n ph\u00e2n
C\u00f4ng th\u1ee9c ph\u00e2n th\u01b0\u1eddng d\u00f9ng cho \u0111\u1eadu cove l\u00e0:

N: 120 - 200 kg/ha
P2 O5: 100 - 150 kg/ha
K2O : 80 - 100 kg /ha
D\u1ef1a v\u00e0o c\u00f4ng th\u1ee9c tr\u00ean c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 b\u00f3n cho 1 ha \u0111\u1eadu 800 - 1.000 kg ph\u00e2n 16-16-8 hay 200 kg

Ur\u00ea, 300 kg DAP v\u00e0 150 kg KCl, 20-25 t\u1ea5n ph\u00e2n chu\u1ed3ng v\u00e0 1-2 t\u1ea5n tro tr\u1ea5u.
Sau \u0111\u00e2y l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t v\u00ed d\u1ee5 v\u1ec1 th\u1eddi \u0111i\u1ec3m, lo\u1ea1i ph\u00e2n v\u00e0 li\u1ec1u l\u01b0\u1ee3ng b\u00f3n cho 1 ha:
Lo\u1ea1i ph\u00e2n
T\u1ed5ng s\u1ed1 B\u00f3n l\u00f3t T\u01b0\u1edbi d\u1eadm (5-
10 NSG)
B\u00f3n th\u00fac (20-
25 NSG)
B\u00f3n nu\u00f4i tr\u00e1i (45 -
55 NSG)
V\u00f4i (t\u1ea5n)
1
1
Ph\u00e2n chu\u1ed3ng (t\u1ea5n)
20
20
16-16-8 (kg)
500
300
200
Ur\u00ea (kg)
100
20
80
DAP (kg)
100
30
70
KCl (kg)
100
50
50

4.3.2. T\u01b0\u1edbi n\u01b0\u1edbc: t\u01b0\u1edbi b\u1eb1ng th\u00f9ng v\u00f2i b\u00fap sen, m\u1ed7i ng\u00e0y 2 l\u1ea7n v\u00e0o bu\u1ed5i s\u00e1ng v\u00e0 bu\u1ed5i
chi\u1ec1u. T\u01b0\u1edbi nhi\u1ec1u l\u00fac ra hoa tr\u00e1i r\u1ed9. N\u1ebfu \u0111i\u1ec1u ki\u1ec7n \u0111\u1ea5t v\u00e0 n\u01b0\u1edbc cho ph\u00e9p, n\u00ean d\u00f9ng
ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u00e1p t\u01b0\u1edbi th\u1ea5m v\u00ec l\u00fac n\u1ea7y c\u00e2y ph\u00e1t tri\u1ec3n t\u1ed1i \u0111a, b\u1ed9 l\u00e1 l\u1edbn, phi\u1ebfn l\u00e1 to, c\u00e2y y\u00eau c\u1ea7u
nhi\u1ec1u n\u01b0\u1edbc. Thi\u1ebfu n\u01b0\u1edbc c\u00e2y ph\u00e1t tri\u1ec3n k\u00e9m, tr\u00e1i nh\u1ecf, mau gi\u00e0 nhi\u1ec1u x\u01a1, gi\u1ea3m n\u0103ng su\u1ea5t v\u00e0
ph\u1ea9m ch\u1ea5t tr\u00e1i t\u01b0\u01a1i.

4.3.3. L\u00e0m gi\u00e0n: khi c\u00e2y b\u1ecf v\u00f2i th\u00ec b\u1eaft \u0111\u1ea7u l\u00e0m gi\u00e0n. C\u00e2y gi\u00e0n d\u00e0i 2,5-3m, c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 d\u00f9ng
s\u1eady gi\u00e0 \u0111\u1ec3 c\u1eafm gi\u00e0n, th\u00e2n \u0111\u1eadu b\u00f2 d\u00e0i h\u01a1n 3 m. M\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 n\u01a1i n\u00f4ng d\u00e2n d\u00f9ng s\u00f3ng l\u00e1 d\u1eeba \u0111\u1ec3
l\u00e0m gi\u00e0n, c\u1eafm gi\u00e0n theo h\u00ecnh ch\u1eef X, ph\u1ea7n ch\u00f3t l\u00e1 c\u1ed9t d\u00ednh nhau. Gi\u00e0n n\u1ea7y c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng
\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c 2 - 3 m\u00f9a, s\u1ed1 l\u01b0\u1ee3ng c\u00e2y l\u00e0m gi\u00e0n t\u1eeb 40.000 - 50.000 c\u00e2y/ha. Gi\u00e0n l\u01b0\u1edbi \u0111ang \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c \u01b0a
ch\u1ed9ng thay th\u1ebf cho gi\u00e0n le, s\u1eady.

Gi\u00e0n ch\u1eef nh\u00e2n (X); gi\u00e0n l\u01b0\u1edbi
4.3.5. Ph\u00f2ng tr\u1eeb s\u00e2u b\u1ec7nh:
S\u00e2u h\u1ea1i quan tr\u1ecdng c\u00f3:

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