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P. 1
sinh vat chi thi moi truong

sinh vat chi thi moi truong

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Published by api-3773922

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Published by: api-3773922 on Oct 16, 2008
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03/18/2014

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CH\u00c6\u00c5NG 1 SINH V\u00c1\u00db T CH\u00c8 TH\u00cb

Y\u00cf t\u00e6\u00e5\u00ed ng du\u00ec ng sinh v\u00e1\u00fb t \u00e2\u00e3\u00f8 la\u00ec m ch\u00e8 th\u00eb cho t\u00eanh ch\u00e1\u00fat m\u00e4i tr\u00e6\u00e5\u00ec ng s\u00e4\u00fang cu\u00ed a chu\u00efng ph\u00e4\u00f8 bi\u00e3\u00fa n hi\u00e3\u00fb n nay, va\u00ec t\u00e6\u00ec indicator ho\u00e0\u00fb c indicator species co\u00ef th\u00e3\u00f8 s\u00e6\u00ed du\u00fb ng va\u00ec \u00e2\u00e6\u00e5\u00fc c hi\u00e3\u00f8u theo nhi\u00e3\u00f6 u ca\u00ef ch kha\u00ef c nhau.

Th\u00ea du\u00fb m\u00e4\u00fc t s\u00e4\u00fa loa\u00ec i \u00e2\u00e6\u00e5\u00fc c bi\u00e3\u00fa t la\u00ec co\u00ef nhu c\u00e1\u00f6 u ri\u00e3ng bi\u00e3\u00fb t v\u00e5\u00efi ha\u00ec m l\u00e6\u00e5\u00fc ng ch\u00e1\u00fa t dinh d\u00e6\u00e5\u00eeng ho\u00e0\u00fb c v\u00e5\u00efi m\u00e6\u00efc \u00e2\u00e4\u00fc oxy ho\u00ec a tan trong thuy\u00ed v\u00e6\u00fb c kha\u00efc nhau. \u00c2i\u00e3\u00f6 u na\u00ec y khi \u00e2\u00e6\u00e5\u00fc c xa\u00efc \u00e2\u00ebnh ro\u00ee s\u00e6\u00fb hi\u00e3\u00fb n di\u00e3\u00fb n cu\u00ed a ca\u00efc loa\u00ec i ri\u00e3ng bi\u00e3\u00fb t trong m\u00e4i tr\u00e6\u00e5\u00ec ng chu\u00efng s\u00e4\u00fang se\u00ee pha\u00ed n a\u00ed nh \u00e2i\u00e3\u00f6 u ki\u00e3\u00fb n xa\u00efc \u00e2\u00ebnh ho\u00e0\u00fb c ca\u00efc th\u00e4ng s\u00e4\u00fa v\u00e3\u00f6 m\u00e4i tr\u00e6\u00e5\u00ec ng trong khoa\u00ed ng gi\u00e5\u00efi ha\u00fb n ch\u00ebu \u00e2\u00e6\u00fb ng cu\u00ed a chu\u00efng. Kha\u00efi ni\u00e3\u00fb m v\u00e1\u00fb t ch\u00e8 th\u00eb na\u00ec y co\u00ef th\u00e3\u00f8 pha\u00eft tri\u00e3\u00f8n h\u00e5n n\u00e6\u00eea kh\u00e4ng pha\u00ed i ch\u00e8 la\u00ec s\u00e6\u00fb ghi nh\u00e1\u00fb n \u00e2\u00e5n gia\u00ed n v\u00e3\u00f6 s\u00e6\u00fb hi\u00e3\u00fb n di\u00e3\u00fb n ho\u00e0\u00fb c v\u00e0\u00f5ng m\u00e0\u00fb t cu\u00ed a loa\u00ec i.

M\u00e4\u00fc t va\u00ec i sinh v\u00e1\u00fb t ch\u00e8 th\u00eb ti\u00e3\u00fa p tu\u00fb c t\u00e4\u00f6 n ta\u00fb i trong m\u00e4i tr\u00e6\u00e5\u00ec ng b\u00eb \u00e4 nhi\u00e3\u00f9m nh\u00e6ng pha\u00ed i ch\u00ebu \u00e2\u00e6\u00fb ng nh\u00e6\u00eeng stress v\u00e3\u00f6 v\u00e1\u00fb t ly\u00ef la\u00ec m cho t\u00e8 l\u00e3\u00fb t\u00e0ng tr\u00e6\u00e5\u00ed ng gia\u00ed m, kha\u00ee n\u00e0ng sinh sa\u00ed n ke\u00efm ho\u00e0\u00fb c t\u00e1\u00fb p qua\u00efn s\u00e4\u00fa ng se\u00ee thay \u00e2\u00e4\u00f8i. \u00c2\u00e1y ch\u00eanh la\u00ec m\u00e4\u00fc t s\u00e6\u00fb xe\u00eft nghi\u00e3\u00fb m sinh ho\u00fc c cu\u00ed a s\u00e6\u00fb \u00e4 nhi\u00e3\u00f9m m\u00e4i tr\u00e6\u00e5\u00ec ng va\u00ec cho phe\u00efp chu\u00efng ta kha\u00efm pha\u00ef ra s\u00e6\u00fb thay \u00e2\u00e4\u00f8i va\u00ec co\u00ef th\u00e3\u00f8 \u00e6\u00e5\u00efc l\u00e6\u00e5\u00fc ng c\u00e6\u00e5\u00ec ng \u00e2\u00e4\u00fc cu\u00ed a no\u00ef, v\u00e1\u00fb t ch\u00e8 th\u00eb se\u00ee tr\u00e5\u00ed tha\u00ec nh v\u00e1\u00fb t ca\u00ed m quan sinh ho\u00fc c cho s\u00e6\u00fb nhi\u00e3\u00f9m b\u00e1\u00f8n na\u00ec y ho\u00e0\u00fb c \u00e2\u00e6\u00e5\u00fc c go\u00fc i la\u00ec stressor.

Kha\u00efi ni\u00e3\u00fb m kha\u00efc v\u00e5\u00efi t\u00e6\u00ec biological indicator la\u00ec kha\u00efi ni\u00e3\u00fb m sinh v\u00e1\u00fb t t\u00each lu\u00eey v\u00e1\u00fb t ch\u00e1\u00fa t trong m\u00e4 cu\u00ed a chu\u00ef ng theo ca\u00ef ch nh\u00e6 th\u00e3\u00fa na\u00ec o \u00e2o\u00ef pha\u00ed n \u00e6\u00ef ng v\u00e5\u00ef i ca\u00ef c ch\u00e1\u00fa t \u00e4 nhi\u00e3\u00f9m. Lu\u00ef c na\u00ec y v\u00e1\u00fb t ch\u00e8 th\u00eb \u00e2\u00e6\u00e5\u00fc c thu va\u00ec qua ph\u00e1n t\u00each m\u00e4 cu\u00ed a chu\u00ef ng v\u00e3\u00f6 m\u00e0\u00fb t ho\u00ef a ho\u00fc c th\u00e7 co\u00ef th\u00e3\u00f8 \u00e6\u00e5\u00efc l\u00e6\u00e5\u00fc ng n\u00e4\u00f6ng \u00e2\u00e4\u00fc m\u00e4i tr\u00e6\u00e5\u00ecng t\u00e4\u00f6n ta\u00fbi. Nh\u00e6 sinh v\u00e1\u00fbt \u00e2\u00e6\u00e5\u00fc c go\u00fc i la\u00ec bio- accumulators cua\u00ed ca\u00ef c ch\u00e1\u00fa t na\u00ec y va\u00ec chu\u00ef ng th\u00e6\u00e5\u00ec ng co\u00ef l\u00e5\u00fc i ri\u00e3ng bi\u00e3\u00fb t khi ca\u00ef c ch\u00e1\u00fa t na\u00ec y co\u00ef m\u00e6\u00ef c \u00e2\u00e4\u00fc r\u00e1\u00fa t th\u00e1\u00fa p trong m\u00e4i tr\u00e6\u00e5\u00ec ng.

Trong ca\u00efc thuy\u00ed v\u00e6\u00fb c n\u00e6\u00e5\u00efc ngo\u00fc t, tr\u00e6\u00e5\u00efc \u00e2\u00e1y ca\u00efch ti\u00e3\u00fa p c\u00e1\u00fb n ph\u00e4\u00f8 bi\u00e3\u00fa n nh\u00e1\u00fa t th\u00e6\u00e5\u00ec ng du\u00ec ng \u00e2o\u00ef la\u00ec t\u00e6\u00ec indicator b\u00e0\u00f2 ng s\u00e6\u00fb ca\u00ed m quan cu\u00ed a gi\u00e1\u00fa y qu\u00ec y sinh ho\u00fc c (gi\u00e1\u00fa y nhu\u00e4\u00fc m quy\u00ec du\u00ec ng \u00e2\u00e3\u00f8 th\u00e6\u00ed xem m\u00e4\u00fc t dung d\u00ebch la\u00ec acid ho\u00e0c ki\u00e3\u00f6 m). M\u00e4\u00fc t s\u00e4\u00fa nha\u00ec nghi\u00e3n c\u00e6\u00efu \u00e2a\u00ee s\u00e6\u00ed du\u00fb ng ph\u00e1n t\u00each ho\u00efa ho\u00fc c t\u00e3\u00fa ba\u00ec o m\u00e4 xem nh\u00e6 la\u00ec y\u00ef ngh\u00e9a \u00e2a\u00efnh gia\u00ef m\u00e6\u00efc \u00e2\u00e4\u00fc \u00e4 nhi\u00e3\u00f9m m\u00e4i tr\u00e6\u00e5\u00ec ng trong n\u00e6\u00e5\u00ef c ngo\u00fc t.

I.
CH\u00c8 TH\u00cb

Ch\u00e8 th\u00eb loa\u00ec i bao g\u00e4\u00f6 m ca\u00efc loa\u00ec i m\u00e1\u00f9n ca\u00ed m v\u00e5\u00efi \u00e2i\u00e3\u00f6 u ki\u00e3\u00fb n sinh ly\u00ef va\u00ec sinh ho\u00efa. No\u00efi chung la\u00ec s\u00e6\u00fb hi\u00e3\u00fb n di\u00e3\u00fb n va\u00ec thay \u00e2\u00e4\u00f8i s\u00e4\u00fa l\u00e6\u00e5\u00fc ng ca\u00efc loa\u00ec i ch\u00e8 th\u00eb s\u00e6\u00fb \u00e4 nhi\u00e3\u00f9m va\u00ec xa\u00efo tr\u00e4\u00fc n cu\u00ed a m\u00e4i tr\u00e6\u00e5\u00ec ng. Va\u00ec i loa\u00ec i \u00e2\u00eba y \u00e2\u00e6\u00e5\u00fc c bi\u00e3\u00fa t nh\u00e6 la\u00ec loa\u00ec i ch\u00e8 th\u00eb s\u00e6\u00fb m\u00e1\u00f9n ca\u00ed m v\u00e5\u00efi \u00e4 nhi\u00e3\u00f9m

1
SO2. Vi\u00e3\u00fb c s\u00e6\u00ed du\u00fb ng ca\u00efc loa\u00ec i c\u00e1y na\u00ec y nh\u00e6 la\u00ec ch\u00e8 th\u00eb sinh v\u00e1\u00fb t cu\u00ed a s\u00e6\u00fb \u00e4 nhi\u00e3\u00f9m kh\u00e4ng
kh\u00ea cu\u00eeng \u00e2a\u00ee \u00e2\u00e6\u00e5\u00fc c bi\u00e3\u00fa t ca\u00efch \u00e2\u00e1y 130 n\u00e0m.

Cu\u00eeng nh\u00e6 t\u00e6\u00ec ng ca\u00ef th\u00e3\u00f8 loa\u00ec i pha\u00ed n \u00e6\u00efng nh\u00e6 la\u00ec v\u00e1\u00fb t ch\u00e8 th\u00eb m\u00e4i tr\u00e6\u00e5\u00ec ng, va\u00ec i nho\u00efm c\u00e1y, con cu\u00eeng la\u00ec v\u00e1\u00fb t ch\u00e8 th\u00eb cho m\u00e4\u00fc t s\u00e4\u00fa \u00e2i\u00e3\u00f6 u ki\u00e3\u00fb n m\u00e4i tr\u00e6\u00e5\u00ec ng na\u00ec o \u00e2o\u00ef. \u00c2\u00e0\u00fb c t\u00eanh cu\u00ed a ca\u00efc nho\u00efm th\u00e6\u00fb c v\u00e1\u00fb t pha\u00eft tri\u00e3\u00f8n tr\u00e3n \u00e2\u00e1\u00fa t serpentine co\u00ef n\u00e4\u00f6 ng \u00e2\u00e4\u00fc calcium th\u00e1\u00fa p va\u00ec magne cao trong m\u00e4i tr\u00e6\u00e5\u00ec ng la\u00ec m\u00e4\u00fc t th\u00ea du\u00fb \u00e2i\u00e3\u00f8n h\u00e7nh cu\u00ed a nho\u00efm c\u00e1y ch\u00e8 th\u00eb m\u00e4i tr\u00e6\u00e5\u00ec ng. Ta\u00fb i B\u00e0\u00f5\u00fb c My\u00ee, \u00e5\u00ed \u00e2\u00e1\u00fa t serpentine th\u00e6\u00e5\u00ec ng ch\u00e8 co\u00ef ca\u00efc nho\u00efm c\u00e1y pha\u00eft tri\u00e3\u00f8n r\u00e5\u00ec i ra\u00fb c va\u00ec lu\u00ec n la\u00ec Quercus durata va cupressus sargentii. Va\u00ec i loa\u00ec i c\u00e1y kh\u00e4ng th\u00e3\u00f8 na\u00ec o ch\u00e4\u00fa ng ch\u00ebu \u00e2\u00e6\u00e5\u00fc c s\u00e6\u00fb xa\u00efo tr\u00e4\u00fc n va\u00ec co\u00ef th\u00e3\u00f8 la\u00ec ca\u00efc c\u00e1y ch\u00e8 th\u00eb cho tu\u00e4\u00f8i cu\u00ed a r\u00e6\u00ec ng c\u00e1y. Ta\u00fb i Anh qu\u00e4\u00fa c, H\u00e4\u00fc i ba\u00ed o t\u00e4\u00f6 n r\u00e6\u00ec ng qu\u00e4\u00fa c gia pha\u00eft tri\u00e3\u00f8n m\u00e4\u00fc t ph\u00e6\u00e5ng pha\u00efp thu th\u00e1\u00fb p d\u00e6\u00ee li\u00e3\u00fb u va\u00ec x\u00e3\u00fa p nho\u00efm ca\u00efc gia\u00ef tr\u00eb cu\u00ed a ca\u00efc loa\u00fb i c\u00e1y g\u00e4\u00f9 qu\u00efi hi\u00e3\u00fa m ta\u00fb i ph\u00eaa nam Anh qu\u00e4\u00fa c.

Ca\u00efc ch\u00e8 th\u00eb sinh ho\u00fc c co\u00ef th\u00e3\u00f8 \u00e2\u00e6\u00e5\u00fc c s\u00e6\u00ed dung trong \u00e2a\u00efnh gia\u00ef sinh tha\u00efi, \u00e2\u00e0\u00fb c bi\u00e3\u00fb t la\u00ec tr\u00e6\u00e5\u00ec ng h\u00e5\u00fc p cu\u00ed a nho\u00efm qu\u00e1\u00f6 n th\u00e3\u00f8 ch\u00e8 th\u00eb \u00e2i\u00e3\u00f6 u ki\u00e3\u00fb n khu v\u00e6\u00fb c c\u00e1\u00f6 n thi\u00e3\u00fa t pha\u00ed i \u00e2\u00e6\u00e5\u00fc c ba\u00ed o t\u00e4\u00f6 n. Ch\u00e8 th\u00eb loa\u00ec i cu\u00eeng \u00e2\u00e6\u00e5\u00fc c du\u00ec ng trong \u00e2i\u00e3\u00f6 u ki\u00e3\u00fb n \u00e2a\u00efnh gia\u00ef m\u00e4i tr\u00e6\u00e5\u00ec ng va\u00ec trong vi\u00e3\u00fb c s\u00e6\u00ed du\u00fb ng \u00e2\u00e3\u00f8 la\u00ec m ba\u00ed n \u00e2\u00e4\u00f6 v\u00e3\u00f6 s\u00e6\u00fb m\u00e1\u00f9n ca\u00ed m \u00e2\u00e4\u00fa i v\u00e5\u00ef i m\u00e4i tr\u00e6\u00e5\u00ec ng.

Ca\u00efc ch\u00e8 th\u00eb sinh v\u00e1\u00fb t m\u00e4i tr\u00e6\u00e5\u00ec ng kha\u00efc nhau co\u00ef th\u00e3\u00f8 x\u00e3\u00fa p tha\u00ec nh nho\u00efm theo nh\u00e6\u00eeng ti\u00e3u
\u00e2\u00e3\u00f6 sau:
1.T\u00eanh ch\u00e1\u00fat m\u00e1\u00f9n ca\u00ed m (Sentinels) : ca\u00efc loa\u00fb i m\u00e1\u00f9n ca\u00ed m \u00e2\u00e0\u00fb c tr\u00e6ng cho ca\u00efc \u00e2i\u00e3\u00f6 u ki\u00e3\u00fb n
kh\u00e4ng \u00e2i\u00e3\u00f8n h\u00e7nh nh\u00e6 la\u00ec ca\u00ef c c\u00e4ng cu\u00fb \u00e2\u00e3\u00f8 d\u00e6\u00fb \u00e2oa\u00ef n m\u00e4i tr\u00e6\u00e5\u00ec ng

2.Ca\u00efc c\u00e4ng cu\u00fb th\u00e0m do\u00ec (Detector) : nh\u00e6\u00eeng loa\u00ec i xu\u00e1\u00fa t hi\u00e3\u00fb n t\u00e6\u00fb nhi\u00e3n trong m\u00e4i tr\u00e6\u00e5\u00ec ng co\u00ef th\u00e3\u00f8 du\u00ec ng \u00e2\u00e3\u00f8 \u00e2o \u00e2a\u00fb c s\u00e6\u00fb pha\u00ed n \u00e6\u00efng va\u00ec th\u00each nghi \u00e2\u00e4\u00fai v\u00e5\u00efi s\u00e6\u00fb thay \u00e2\u00e4\u00f8i cu\u00ed a m\u00e4i tr\u00e6\u00e5\u00ec ng (thay \u00e2\u00e4\u00f8i tu\u00e4\u00f8i, nho\u00efm loa\u00ec i, gia\u00ed m k\u00each th\u00e6\u00e5\u00efc qu\u00e1\u00f6 n th\u00e3\u00f8, t\u00e1\u00fb p qua\u00efn s\u00e4\u00fa ng..). \u00c2\u00e1\u00fa t hoang ho\u00ef a (heathland) th\u00e6\u00e5\u00ec ng \u00e2\u00e0\u00fb c tr\u00e6ng cu\u00ed a \u00e2\u00e1\u00fa t nghe\u00ec o ca\u00ef c ch\u00e1\u00fa t dinh d\u00e6\u00e5\u00eeng va\u00ec va\u00ec i loa\u00ec i c\u00e1y co\u00ef th\u00e3\u00f8 \u00e2\u00e6\u00e5\u00fc c s\u00e6\u00ed du\u00fb ng la\u00ec m ca\u00efc ch\u00e8 th\u00eb cho ki\u00e3\u00f8u \u00e2\u00e1\u00fa t r\u00e6\u00ec ng.

3. Ca\u00efc c\u00e4ng cu\u00fb khai tha\u00efc (Exploiter): Ca\u00efc loa\u00ec i co\u00ef th\u00e3\u00f8 ch\u00e8 th\u00eb cho s\u00e6\u00fb xa\u00efo tr\u00e4\u00fc n hay \u00e4 nhi\u00e3\u00f9m m\u00e4i tr\u00e6\u00e5\u00ec ng th\u00ea du\u00fb ca\u00efc t\u00e1\u00fb p qua\u00efn cu\u00ed a ca\u00efc loa\u00ec i thu\u00ed y sinh v\u00e1\u00fb t, s\u00e6\u00fb hi\u00e3\u00fb n di\u00e3\u00fb n cu\u00ed a ca\u00ef c loa\u00ec i giun va\u00ec ca\u00ef c loa\u00ec i giun \u00e2o\u00ed ch\u00e8 th\u00eb s\u00e6\u00fb \u00e4 nhi\u00e3\u00f9m cu\u00ed a m\u00e4i tr\u00e6\u00e5\u00ec ng.

4.Ca\u00efc c\u00e4ng cu\u00fb t\u00each lu\u00eey sinh ho\u00fc c (Accumulator): ca\u00efc loa\u00ec i t\u00each lu\u00eey sinh ho\u00fc c bao g\u00e4\u00f6 m
ho\u00ef a ch\u00e1\u00fa t trong m\u00e4 cu\u00ed a chu\u00ef ng th\u00ea du\u00fb ca\u00ef c loa\u00ec i \u00e2\u00eba y.

5.Ca\u00efc sinh v\u00e1\u00fb t th\u00e6\u00ed nghi\u00e3\u00fb m (Bioassay): Ca\u00efc sinh v\u00e1\u00fb t cho\u00fc n lo\u00fc c \u00e2\u00e4i khi co\u00ef th\u00e3\u00f8 \u00e2\u00e6\u00e5\u00fc c s\u00e6\u00ed du\u00fb ng nh\u00e6 la\u00ec ca\u00efc ch\u00e1\u00fat trong pho\u00ec ng th\u00ea nghi\u00e3\u00fb m \u00e2\u00e3\u00f8 xa\u00efc \u00e2\u00ebnh s\u00e6\u00fb hi\u00e3\u00fb n di\u00e3\u00fb n ho\u00e0\u00fb c va\u00ec n\u00e4\u00f6ng \u00e2\u00e4\u00fc ca\u00efc ch\u00e1\u00fat \u00e4 nhi\u00e3\u00f9m.

II.CH\u00c8 S\u00c4\u00da
2

Co\u00ef nhi\u00e3\u00f6 u th\u00e6\u00ed nghi\u00e3\u00fb m ly\u00ef thu\u00ef nh\u00e0\u00f2 m th\u00e6\u00ed \u00e2o \u00e2a\u00fb c t\u00eanh ch\u00e1\u00fa t cu\u00ed a m\u00e4i tr\u00e6\u00ec \u00e5ng. Ca\u00efc th\u00e6\u00ed nghi\u00e3\u00fb m na\u00ec y th\u00e6\u00e5\u00ec ng \u00e2\u00e6\u00e5\u00fc c th\u00e6\u00fb c hi\u00e3\u00fb n d\u00e6\u00fb a tr\u00e3n a\u00ed nh h\u00e6\u00e5\u00ed ng cu\u00ed a s\u00e6\u00fb \u00e4 nhi\u00e3\u00f9m m\u00e4i tr\u00e6\u00e5\u00ec ng va\u00ec b\u00e0\u00f2 ng s\u00e6\u00fb ph\u00e1n hu\u00ed y m\u00e4i tr\u00e6\u00e5\u00ec ng. Ta\u00fb i USA, k\u00e3\u00f8 t\u00e6\u00ec n\u00e0m 1970 \u00e2a\u00ee co\u00ef nhi\u00e3\u00f6 u ti\u00e3\u00fa n b\u00e4\u00fc va\u00ec k\u00e3\u00fat qu\u00eda v\u00e3\u00f6 t\u00e7nh tra\u00fbng m\u00e4i tr\u00e6\u00e5\u00ecng. Th\u00ea du\u00fb U\u00cdy Ban V\u00e3\u00f6 Ch\u00e1\u00fat L\u00e6\u00e5\u00fcng M\u00e4i Tr\u00e6\u00e5\u00ecng va\u00ec Hi\u00e3\u00fb p H\u00e4\u00fc i Ba\u00ed o V\u00e3\u00fb Ca\u00efc Loa\u00ec i Hoang Da\u00ee Qu\u00e4\u00fa c Gia (NWF) \u00e2a\u00ee xu\u00e1\u00fa t ba\u00ed n m\u00e4\u00fc t ba\u00efo ca\u00efo v\u00e3\u00f6 y\u00ef ki\u00e3\u00fa n cu\u00ed a c\u00e4ng chu\u00efng v\u00e3\u00f6 ca\u00efc v\u00e1\u00fa n \u00e2\u00e3\u00f6 li\u00e3n quan \u00e2\u00e3\u00fa n m\u00e4i tr\u00e6\u00e5\u00ec ng. \u00c2o\u00ef la\u00ec m\u00e4\u00fa c \u00e2\u00e1\u00f6 u ti\u00e3n cu\u00ed a th\u00e6\u00ed nghi\u00e3\u00fb m nh\u00e0\u00f2 m kha\u00ed o sa\u00eft t\u00eanh ch\u00e1\u00fa t cu\u00ed a m\u00e4i tr\u00e6\u00e5\u00ec ng. Sau \u00e2o\u00ef m\u00e4\u00fc t ch\u00e6\u00e5ng tr\u00e7nh \u00e2\u00e6\u00e5\u00fc c th\u00e6\u00fb c hi\u00e3\u00fb n b\u00e5\u00ed i NWF cu\u00eeng \u00e2\u00e6\u00e5\u00fc c th\u00e6\u00fb c hi\u00e3\u00fb n ph\u00e4\u00fa i h\u00e5\u00fc p v\u00e5\u00efi NWF (National Wildlife Federation).

Ca\u00efc \u00e2a\u00efnh gia\u00ef sinh tha\u00efi \u00e2a\u00ee \u00e2\u00e6\u00e5\u00fc c th\u00e6\u00fb c hi\u00e3\u00fb n \u00e2\u00e3\u00f8 nghi\u00e3n c\u00e6\u00efu v\u00e3\u00f6 s\u00e6\u00fb m\u00e1\u00f9n ca\u00ed m cu\u00ed a m\u00e4\u00fc t khu v\u00e6\u00fb c kha\u00ed o sa\u00ef t na\u00ec o \u00e2o\u00ef \u00e2\u00e4\u00fa i v\u00e5\u00ef i va\u00ec i s\u00e6\u00fb thay \u00e2\u00e4\u00f8i m\u00e4i tr\u00e6\u00e5\u00ec ng va\u00ec a\u00ed nh h\u00e6\u00e5\u00ed ng \u00e2\u00e3\u00fa n m\u00e4\u00fc t va\u00ec i vu\u00ec ng l\u00e1n c\u00e1\u00fb n cu\u00ed a h\u00e3\u00fb sinh tha\u00efi. S\u00e6\u00fb lan r\u00e4\u00fc ng co\u00ef th\u00e3\u00f8 la\u00ec m \u00e4 nhi\u00e3\u00f8m va\u00ec g\u00e1y thi\u00e3\u00fb t ha\u00fb i \u00e2\u00e6\u00e5\u00fcc di\u00e3\u00f9n \u00e2a\u00fbt d\u00e6\u00e5\u00efi ch\u00e8 s\u00e4\u00fa m\u00e4i tr\u00e6\u00e5\u00ecng hay ch\u00e8 s\u00e4\u00fa sinh ho\u00fcc.

Ca\u00efc th\u00ea du\u00fb v\u00e3\u00f6 ch\u00e8 s\u00e4\u00fa sinh ho\u00fc c bao g\u00e4\u00f6 m ca\u00ed ca\u00efc ch\u00e8 s\u00e4\u00fa du\u00ec ng \u00e2\u00e3\u00f8 quan tr\u00e0\u00f5c ch\u00e1\u00fa t l\u00e6\u00e5\u00fc ng n\u00e6\u00e5\u00efc tr\u00e3n c\u00e5 s\u00e5\u00ed ca\u00efc loa\u00ec i ch\u00e8 th\u00eb va\u00ec m\u00e6\u00fb c \u00e2\u00e4\u00fc m\u00e1\u00f9n ca\u00ed m cu\u00ed a ca\u00efc loa\u00ec i ch\u00e8 th\u00eb \u00e2\u00e4\u00fa i v\u00e5\u00efi s\u00e6\u00fb \u00e4 nhi\u00e3\u00f9m cu\u00ed a m\u00e4i tr\u00e6\u00e5\u00ec ng. Th\u00ea du\u00fb va\u00ec o n\u00e0m 1964, Woodiwiss m\u00e4 ta\u00ed m\u00e4\u00fc t ch\u00e8 th\u00eb sinh ho\u00fc c, r\u00e1\u00fa t d\u00e3\u00f9 da\u00ec ng t\u00eanh toa\u00efn, d\u00e6\u00fb a va\u00ec o ca\u00efc ch\u00e8 th\u00eb loa\u00ec i va\u00ec c\u00e1n tro\u00fc ng l\u00e6\u00e5\u00fc ng cu\u00ed a chu\u00efng d\u00e6\u00fb a tr\u00e3n s\u00e4\u00fa nho\u00efm loa\u00ec i na\u00ec o \u00e2a\u00ef trong m\u00e4\u00fa i quan h\u00e3\u00fb gi\u00e6\u00eea s\u00e6\u00fb m\u00e1\u00f9n ca\u00ed m cu\u00ed a chu\u00efng \u00e2\u00e4\u00fa i v\u00e5\u00efi s\u00e6\u00fb \u00e4 nhi\u00e3\u00f9m h\u00e6\u00eeu c\u00e5. S\u00e4\u00fa l\u00e6\u00e5\u00fc ng nho\u00efm sinh v\u00e1\u00fb t v\u00e5\u00efi s\u00e6\u00fb hi\u00e3\u00fb n di\u00e3\u00fb n ho\u00e0\u00fb c v\u00e0\u00f5ng m\u00e0\u00fb t cu\u00ed a va\u00ec i ch\u00e8 th\u00eb loa\u00ec i \u00e2\u00e6\u00e5\u00fc c du\u00ec ng \u00e2\u00e3\u00f8 t\u00eanh toa\u00ef n ch\u00e8 s\u00e4\u00fa . Ch\u00e8 s\u00e4\u00fa na\u00ec y, nga\u00ec y nay \u00e2\u00e6\u00e5\u00fc c bi\u00e3\u00fa t nh\u00e6 la\u00ec ch\u00e8 s\u00e4\u00fa sinh ho\u00fc c, co\u00ef ca\u00efc tr\u00eb s\u00e4\u00fa x\u00e3\u00fa p loa\u00fb i t\u00e6\u00ec 0 (b\u00eb \u00e4 nhi\u00e3\u00f9m n\u00e0\u00fb ng ch\u00e1\u00fa t h\u00e6\u00eeu c\u00e5) va\u00ec 15 (hoa\u00ec n toa\u00ec n kh\u00e4ng b\u00eb \u00e4 nhi\u00e3\u00f9m). D\u00e3\u00f9 da\u00ec ng s\u00e6\u00ed du\u00fb ng va\u00ec co\u00ef hi\u00e3\u00fb u qu\u00ed a, loa\u00fb i ch\u00e8 s\u00e4\u00fa na\u00ec y \u00e2\u00e6\u00e5\u00fc c s\u00e6\u00ed du\u00fb ng ph\u00e4\u00f8 bi\u00e3\u00fa n ta\u00fb i Anh qu\u00e4\u00fa c.

III.CHO\u00dc N L\u00c6\u00db A V\u00c1\u00db T CH\u00c8 TH\u00cb
\u00c2\u00e3\u00f8 co\u00ef th\u00e3\u00f8 cho\u00fc n sinh v\u00e1\u00fb t ch\u00e8 th\u00eb chu\u00efng ta tr\u00e6\u00e5\u00efc h\u00e3\u00fa t c\u00e1\u00f6 n xa\u00efc \u00e2\u00ebnh la\u00ec v\u00e1\u00fa n \u00e2\u00e3\u00f6 ch\u00e8
th\u00eb cho \u00e2i\u00e3\u00f6 u g\u00e7 ?

H\u00e1\u00f6 u h\u00e3\u00fa t b\u00e1\u00fa t c\u00e6\u00ef loa\u00ec i na\u00ec o cu\u00eeng co\u00ef th\u00e3\u00f8 la\u00ec v\u00e1\u00fb t ch\u00e8 th\u00eb nh\u00e6ng do ki\u00e3\u00fa n th\u00e6\u00ef c hi\u00e3\u00f8u bi\u00e3\u00fa t cu\u00ed a chu\u00efng ta nghi\u00e3n c\u00e6\u00efu v\u00e3\u00f6 Autoecology cu\u00ed a \u00e2a s\u00e4\u00fa ca\u00efc loa\u00eci th\u00e7 co\u00ecn ha\u00fb n ch\u00e3\u00fa (autoecology: nghi\u00e3n c\u00e6\u00efu sinh tha\u00efi ca\u00ef th\u00e3\u00f8, nghi\u00e3n c\u00e6\u00efu m\u00e4\u00fc t loa\u00fb i sinh v\u00e1\u00fb t trong m\u00e4\u00fc t m\u00e4i tr\u00e6\u00e5\u00ec ng).

Hi\u00e3\u00fb n nay vi\u00e3\u00fb c xa\u00efc \u00e2\u00ebnh qua\u00ed n ly\u00ef ch\u00e1\u00fa t l\u00e6\u00e5\u00fc ng n\u00e6\u00e5\u00efc \u00e2\u00e3\u00f8 \u00e2a\u00efnh gia\u00ef ta\u00ec i nguy\u00e3n cho cung c\u00e1\u00fa p n\u00e6\u00e5\u00ef c u\u00e4\u00fa ng, qua\u00ed n ly\u00ef va\u00ec ki\u00e3\u00f8m soa\u00ef t ngu\u00e4\u00f6 n n\u00e6\u00e5\u00ef c tha\u00ed i (effluent discharges) va\u00ec ba\u00ed o v\u00e3\u00fb ngh\u00e3\u00f6 nu\u00e4i tr\u00e4\u00f6 ng thuy\u00ed sa\u00ed n \u00e2\u00e6\u00e5\u00fc c quan t\u00e1m nhi\u00e3\u00f6 u va\u00ec la\u00ec v\u00e1\u00fa n \u00e2\u00e3\u00f6 kha ph\u00e4\u00f8 bi\u00e3\u00fa n.

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