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Concurrency

Concurrency

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Published by: api-3772774 on Oct 16, 2008
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03/18/2014

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Concurrency
single vs.multi\u00ad user systems
multiprogramming on a single processor byi n t e rl e ave d execution
In multi\u00aduser systems multiple transactions may be executed concurrently by interleaving
statements from the various transactions.
Concurrent access to data can cause problems:
(i.e. correct transaction produces wrong answer because of interference by some other (correct)
transaction)
CS3/3ICT2
Concurrency
1
Classes of Concurrency problems:
1 Lost Update Problem
2. Uncommitted Dependency Problem
(or Temporary Update Problem)
when a transaction fails, and undoes a change which another transaction has already seen.
3. Inconsistent Analysis Problem
when computation of an aggregate value is interleaved with updates to the values being
aggregated.
CS3/3ICT2
Concurrency
2
SERIALIZABILITY AND TPL \u00ad SUMMARY

One way to ensure correctness of concurrent transactions is to enforceserializabil ity of
transactions; that is the interleaved execution of the transactions must beequivalent to some
serial execution of those transactions.

The interleaved execution of a set of transactions is consideredcorrect iff it is serializable.
For reasonable definitions of equivalence, testing equivalence of two schedules is difficult.

Instead determine protocols that guarantee serializability: e.g.
Two-phase locking protocol (TPL)
Timestamp methods
\u2026

TPL:
It can be proved that if all transactions obey the "two-phase locking protocol" then all possible
interleaved executions are serializable.

CS3/3ICT2
Concurrency
3

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