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factorizacion-algnotes

factorizacion-algnotes

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Published by: api-3744003 on Oct 16, 2008
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05/09/2014

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Notes for the course advanced algorithms
January 2000
Johan H\u02daastad
email:johanh@nada.kth.se
2
Contents
1 Introduction
7
2 Notation and basics
9
2.1 A couple of basic algorithms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9
2.1.1 Greatest common divisor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9
2.1.2 Systems of linear equations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.1.3 Depth \ufb01rst search. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3 Primality testing
13

3.1 Chinese remainder theorem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.1.1 Chinese remainder theorem in practice. . . . . . . . . . . 15
3.2 The Miller-Rabin primality test. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
3.2.1 Some notes on the algorithm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
3.3 Other tests for primality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

4 Factoring integers
23

4.1 The \u201cnaive\u201d algorithm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 4.2 Pollard\u2019s\u03c1-method. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 4.3 A method used by Fermat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 4.4 Combiningequations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

4.4.1 Implementationtricks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
4.5 Othermethods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
4.5.1 Continuedfractions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
5 Discrete Logarithms
35

5.1 Adigression. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 5.2 A naive algorithm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 5.3 The baby step/giant step algorithm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 5.4 Pollard\u2019s\u03c1-algorithm for discrete logarithms. . . . . . . . . . . . 37 5.5 The algorithm by Pohlig and Hellman. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 5.6 An even faster randomized algorithm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

6 Quantum computation
43

6.1 Some quantum mechanics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
6.2 Operating on qubits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
6.3 Simulating deterministic computations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
6.4 Relations to other models of computation. . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
6.4.1 Relation to probabilistic models. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

3

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