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Table Of Contents

CHAPTER OVERVIEW
The Era of Accountability
The Logic Model
Community Focus
The Issue of Effectiveness
Assessing an Existing Program
What Is Effectiveness-Based Program Planning?
Program Design
Data Requirements for Performance Measurement
Monitoring, Using Information Technology
Budgeting
The Contribution of Theory to Program Planning
The Use of Theory in Program Planning
Theory of Practice
Theory in Practice
Theory of Program Planning
Types of Planning
Theory in Program Planning
Understanding Social Problems
Addressing Social Problems
Stating Problems as Solutions
The Limitations of This Approach
The Need for a New Approach
Identifying a Social Condition
Defining Problems
Social Problems and Standards
Frameworks for Problem Analysis
The Concept of Need
Theoretical Understandings of Need
Figure 4.1 Two Definitions of Need
Needs Assessment and the Planning Process
Factors Influencing the Definition of Need
Different Perspectives on Need
Normative Need
Perceived Need
Expressed Need
Relative Need
An Application
Table 4.1 Four Types of Need
Need Categories and the Planning Process
Determining Who Is in Need
Two Major Problems: Reliability and Availability of Data
Methodologies Used in Measuring Need
Extrapolating From Existing Studies (Normative Need)
Strengths and Limitations of Surveys
Using Resource Inventories (Normative Need)
Strengths and Limitations of Resource Inventories
Using Service Statistics (Expressed Need)
Strengths and Limitations of Service Statistics
Conducting a Social Survey (Perceived Need)
Holding a Public Forum (Perceived Need)
Strengths and Limitations of Public Hearings
Selecting the Best Method
An Overview of the Issues
An Example of the Need for Spatial Analysis
Spatial Analysis Defined
Factor Analysis: An Example
Human Service Applications
Concluding Comments on Needs Assessment
Selecting the Appropriate Intervention Strategy
The Program Hypothesis
A Maternal and Child Health Example
Types of Program Hypotheses
Where to Intervene
Example 3: Sexuality and Teenage Pregnancy
The Process of Developing a Program Hypothesis
Statement of a Condition
Statement of a Social Problem
Mothers Working in Marginal Jobs
Program Hypotheses and the Idea of Consequences
From Program Hypothesis to Goals and Objectives
Benefits of the Program Hypothesis
The Function of a Mission Statement
The Formulation of Goals
The Formulation of Objectives
Requirements for All Objectives
Clarity
Time Frames
Target of Change
Results
Criteria for Measurement
Responsibility
Outcome Objectives
Process Objectives and Activities
Target and Result
Criteria for Measurement or Documentation
Activities
Activities:
Is It Worth the Effort?
Designing Effective Programs
The Significance of Program Design
Designing the Elements of a System
Defining the Elements of a Program
Inputs
Table 8.1 Variables Related to Program Inputs
Throughputs
Outputs
Table 8.2 Narrative Chart
Table 8.3 Throughput Elements
Table 8.4 Calculating Units of Service
Table 8.5 Output as an Element of Service Design
Table 8.6 Calculating Output Units
Table 8.7 Dimensions of Quality
Outcomes
Table 8.8 Focus of Standardized Measures
Table 8.9 Outcomes as Elements of Service Design
Specifying the Program Hypothesis
Using Management Information
Documentation Practices in Social Services
Designing a Data Collection System for a Program
Step 3: Identify Data Elements
Step 4: Develop a Strategy for Analysis
Step 5: Prepare Format for Monthly Reports
The Differences Between Budgeting and Accounting
The Principal Purposes of Budgeting
The Control Purposes
The Management Purposes
The Planning Purposes
Budgeting and the Systems Framework
Models of the Budgetary Process
Major Budgeting Systems
Dealing With Revenue Increases and Decreases
Budgeting in Social Service Agencies Today
Line-Item, Functional, and Program Budgeting Systems
The Focus of Major Budgeting Systems
Figure 11.1Line-Item Budgeting System
Line-Item Budgeting Systems
2.Developing common budget definitions and terms
Designing the Line-Item Budget Format
Developing Common Budget Definitions and Terms
Table 11.1 Safe Haven Line-Item Budgeting System
Identifying all Revenues and Expenses
Balancing the Budget
2.Determining the agency’s program structure
3.Creating the cost allocation plan format
Developing the Line-Item Budget
Determining the Agency’s Program Structure
Creating the Cost Allocation Plan Format
Table 11.2 Safe Haven Cost Allocation Plan Format
Identifying Direct and Indirect Costs
Table 11.3 Safe Haven Assigning Salary and Wage Costs
Table 11.4 Safe Haven Assigning ERE Costs
Which Cost Allocation Methodology Is Best?
Is Cost Allocation Worth the Effort?
Functional Budgeting Systems
Table 11.9 Case Management Functional Budgeting System
Program Budgeting Systems
Selecting the Program’s Final Outcome Measure
Determining the Program’s Final Outcome Objective
Computing the Program’s Cost Per Final Outcome
Table 11.10Case Management Program Budgeting System
A Comprehensive Budgeting System
Feedback and Self-Evaluating Systems
Performance Measurement
Monitoring
Program Evaluation
Program Data Requirements
Coverage Data
Equity Data
Process Data
Effort (Output) Data
Cost-Efficiency Data
Results (Outcome) Data
Cost-Effectiveness Data
Impact Data
Program Impact Evaluation and Hypothesis Testing
Impact Program Evaluation
Impact Program Evaluation and Hypothesis Testing
Research Designs for Impact Program Evaluation
Table 13.2 Types of Impact Program Evaluations
Author Index
Subject Index
About the Authors
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Designing and Managing Programs

Designing and Managing Programs

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Published by: evi1304 on Oct 18, 2011
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