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Published by: api-3748256 on Oct 16, 2008
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\u00d0\u00e2y l\u00e0 phi\u00ean b\u1ea3n html c\u1ee7a t\u1eadp tinhttp://www.thangln.bigblue.vn/ospf.doc.
Goo gle t\u1ef1 \u0111\u1ed9ng t\u1ea1o ra nh\u1eefng phi\u00ean b\u1ea3n html c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c t\u00e0i li\u1ec7u khi ch\u00fang t\u00f4i crawl web.

\u0110\u1ec3 li\u00ean k\u1ebft t\u1edbi ho\u1eb7c \u0111\u00e1nh d\u1ea5u trang n\u00e0y, h\u00e3y s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng URL sau: http://www.google.com/search?q=cache:Y_- RsJzrfNIJ:www.thangln.bigblue.vn/ospf.doc+giao+th%E1%BB%A9c+%C4%91%E1%BB%8Bnh+tuy%E1 a

Google kh\u00f4ng c\u00f3 m\u1ed9t m\u1ed1i li\u00ean h\u1ec7 n\u00e0o \u0111\u1ebfn c
Nh\u1eefng cu\u0323 m t\u1eeb t\u00ecm ki\u1ebfm na\u0300 y \u0111\u00e3 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c t\u00f4 s\u00e1ng: giao th\u1ee9c \u0111\u1ecbnh tuy\u1ebfn ospf \u0111\u1ed3 t\u1ed1t nghi\u1ec7p Nh\u1eefng cu\u0323 m t\u1eeb n\u00e0y
M\u1ee4C L\u1ee4C
DANH S\u00c1CH H\u00ccNH V\u1ebcTLN
CH\u01af\u01a0NG 1:
THU\u1eacT NG\u1eee VI\u1ebeT T\u1eaeT
X\u00e1c nh\u1eadn
Autonomous Systems
Mi\u1ec1n t\u1ef1 tr\u1ecb
Backup Designated Router
B\u1ed9 \u0111\u1ecbnh tuy\u1ebfn ch\u1ee7 d\u1ef1 ph\u00f2ng
Border Gateway Protocol
Giao th\u1ee9c gateway bi\u00ean
Designated Router
B\u1ed9 \u0111\u1ecbnh tuy\u1ebfn ch\u1ee7
Internet Engineering Task Force
T\u1ed5 ch\u1ee9c qu\u1ea3n l\u00fd Internet
Internet Engineering Task Force
L\u1ef1c l\u01b0\u1ee3ng \u0111\u1eb7c tr\u00e1ch k\u1ef9 thu\u1eadt Internet
Internet Group Management Protocol
Giao th\u1ee9c qu\u1ea3n l\u00fd nh\u00f3m Internet
Interior Gateway Routing Protocol
Giao th\u1ee9c \u0111\u1ecbnh tuy\u1ebfn Gateway b\u00ean
Internetwork Operating System
H\u1ec7 \u0111i\u1ec1u h\u00e0nh li\u00ean m\u1ea1ng
Internet Protocol
Giao th\u1ee9cIntern et
Local Area Network
M\u1ea1ng n\u1ed9i h\u1ea1t
Link-State Advertisement
B\u1ea3n tin qu\u1ea3ng b\u00e1 tr\u1ea1ng th\u00e1i k\u1ebft n\u1ed1i
Link-State Acknowledgement
X\u00e1c nh\u1eadn tr\u1ea1ng th\u00e1i k\u1ebft n\u1ed1i
Link State Database
C\u01a1 s\u1edf d\u1eef li\u1ec7u tr\u1ea1ng th\u00e1i k\u1ebft n\u1ed1i
Link-State Request
Y\u00eau c\u1ea7u tr\u1ea1ng th\u00e1i k\u1ebft n\u1ed1i
Link-State Update
C\u1eadp nh\u1eadt tr\u1ea1ng th\u00e1i k\u1ebft n\u1ed1i
Media Access Control
\u0110i\u1ec1u khi\u1ec3n ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ti\u1ec7n truy\u1ec1n d\u1eabn
Network Simulator
B\u1ed9 m\u00f4 ph\u1ecfng m\u1ea1ng
Open Shortest Path First
\u0110\u01b0\u1eddng ng\u1eafn nh\u1ea5t m\u1edf \u0111\u1ea7u ti\u00ean
Protocol Data Unit
Kh\u1ed1i d\u1eef li\u1ec7u giao th\u1ee9c
Request For Comments
Khuy\u1ebfn ngh\u1ecb
Routing Information Protocol
Giao th\u1ee9c th\u00f4ng tin \u0111\u1ecbnh tuy\u1ebfn
Shortest Path First
Giao th\u1ee9c \u0111\u1ecbnht\u00ednh tuy\u1ebfntheo
ph\u01b0\u01a1ngth\u1ee9c \u01b0u ti\u00ean
ng\u1eafn nh\u1ea5t
Shortest Path Tree
C\u00e2y \u0111\u01b0\u1eddng d\u1eabn ng\u1eafn nh\u1ea5t
Source-Rooted Tree
C\u00e2y g\u1ed1c ngu\u1ed3n
Tranfer Control Protocol
Giao th\u1ee9c \u0111i\u1ec1u khi\u1ec3n truy\u1ec1n t\u1ea3i
User Datagram Protocol
Giao th\u1ee9c d\u1eef li\u1ec7u ng\u01b0\u1eddi d\u00f9ng
Variable\u2013Length Subnet Masking
G\u00e1n m\u1eb7t n\u1ea1 cho c\u00e1c m\u1ea1ng con theo
chi\u1ec1u d\u00e0i thay \u0111\u1ed5i tu\u1ef3 bi\u1ebfn
Wide Area network
M\u1ea1ng di\u1ec7n r\u1ed9ng
L\u1edcI N\u00d3I \u0110\u1ea6UTLN

Trong th\u1ebf k\u1ec9 XX, r\u1ea5t nhi\u1ec1u th\u00e0nh t\u1ef1u c\u1ee7a cu\u1ed9c c\u00e1ch m\u1ea1ng khoa h\u1ecdc k\u0129 thu\u1eadt \u0111\u00e3 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c
ghi nh\u1eadn.B\u01b0\u1edbc sang th\u1ebf k\u1ec9 XXI, cu\u1ed9c c\u00e1ch m\u1ea1ng n\u00e0y \u0111ang ph\u00e1t tri\u1ec3n v\u00f4 c\u00f9ng m\u1ea1nh m\u1ebd,
t\u1eebng ng\u00e0y, t\u1eebng gi\u1edd l\u00e0m thay \u0111\u1ed5i cu\u1ed9c s\u1ed1ng con ng\u01b0\u1eddi. M\u1ea1ng l\u01b0\u1edbi th\u00f4ng tin li\u00ean l\u1ea1c hi\u1ec7n
nay \u0111\u00e3 thu \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c r\u1ea5t nhi\u1ec1u th\u00e0nh t\u1ef1u to l\u1edbn th\u1ec3 hi\u1ec7n qua nhi\u1ec1u \u1ee9ng d\u1ee5ng, nhi\u1ec1u s\u1ea3n ph\u1ea9m
m\u1edbi. H\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng Internet v\u00e0 Vi\u1ec5n th\u00f4ng l\u00e0 nh\u1eefng h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng kh\u00f4ng th\u1ec3 thi\u1ebfu trong x\u00e3 h\u1ed9i hi\u1ec7n
\u0111\u1ea1i. Ch\u00fang l\u00e0 nh\u1eefng h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng kh\u1ed5ng l\u1ed3,mang t\u00ednh ch\u1ea5t to\u00e0n c\u1ea7u.

Nh\u1eb1m t\u00ecm hi\u1ec3u s\u00e2u s\u1eafc h\u01a1n v\u1ec1 m\u1ea1ng vi\u1ec5n th\u00f4ng,ch\u00fang t\u00f4iTLN, nh\u1eefng sinh vi\u00ean l\u1edbp
D05VT1- H\u1ecdc vi\u1ec7n C\u00f4ng Ngh\u1ec7 B\u01b0u Ch\u00ednh Vi\u1ec5n Th\u00f4ng x\u00e2y d\u1ef1ng \u0111\u1ec1 t\u00e0i \u201cNghi\u00ean c\u1ee9u
t\u00ednh \u0111\u00e1p \u1ee9ng c\u1ee7a m\u1ea1ng s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng giao th\u1ee9c \u0111\u1ecbnh tuy\u1ebfn OSPF\u201dnh\u1eb1m t\u00ecm hi\u1ec3u v\u1ec1giao
th\u1ee9c OSPF v\u00e0 \u1ee9ng d\u1ee5ng c\u1ee7a n\u00f3 trong m\u1ea1ng Vi\u1ec5n th\u00f4ng.
Sau khi c\u00f3 quy\u1ebft \u0111\u1ecbnh giao \u0111\u1ec1 t\u00e0i, ch\u00fang t\u00f4i \u0111\u00e3 nhanh ch\u00f3ng nghi\u00ean c\u1ee9u t\u00e0i li\u1ec7u v\u00e0
th\u1ef1c hi\u1ec7n c\u00e1c n\u1ed9i dung \u0111\u00e3 \u0111\u0103ng k\u00ed trong \u0111\u1ec1 c\u01b0\u01a1ng khoa h\u1ecdc.
\u0110\u1ec1 t\u00e0i ch\u00fang t\u00f4i nghi\u00ean c\u1ee9u bao g\u1ed3m nh\u1eefng n\u1ed9i dung ch\u00ednh sau :

Ch\u01b0\u01a1ng 1: T\u1ed5ng quan v\u1ec1 m\u1ea1ng IP v\u00e0 \u0111\u1ecbnh tuy\u1ebfn tr\u00ean n\u1ec1n m\u1ea1ng IP.
Ch\u01b0\u01a1ng 2: Giao th\u1ee9c \u0111\u1ecbnh tuy\u1ebfn OSPF.
Ch\u01b0\u01a1ng 3: L\u1ef1a ch\u1ecdn c\u00f4ng c\u1ee5 m\u00f4 ph\u1ecfng v\u00e0 k\u1ebft qu\u1ea3 m\u00f4 ph\u1ecfng.

Ch\u00fang t\u00f4i xin ch\u00e2n th\u00e0nh c\u1ea3m \u01a1n Ban l\u00e3nh \u0111\u1ea1o H\u1ecdc vi\u1ec7n, th\u1ea7y Nguy\u1ec5n \u0110\u00ecnh Long, c\u00f4
Nguy\u1ec5n Th\u1ecb Thu H\u1eb1ng \u0111\u00e3 t\u1ea1o \u0111i\u1ec1u ki\u1ec7n, gi\u00fap \u0111\u1ee1 ch\u00fang t\u00f4i ho\u00e0n th\u00e0nh \u0111\u1ec1 t\u00e0i n\u00e0y.

Do ch\u00fang t\u00f4i ch\u01b0a c\u00f3 nhi\u1ec1u kinh nghi\u1ec7m l\u00e0m \u0111\u1ec1 t\u00e0i nghi\u00ean c\u1ee9u khoa h\u1ecdc, ch\u00fang t\u00f4i r\u1ea5t mong nh\u1eadn \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c s\u1ef1 g\u00f3p \u00fd, ph\u00ea b\u00ecnh c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c th\u1ea7y c\u00f4 gi\u00e1o \u0111\u1ec3 c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 th\u1ef1c hi\u1ec7nt\u1ed1t h\u01a1n trong nh\u1eefng \u0111\u1ec1 t\u00e0i ti\u1ebfp theo.

CH\u01af\u01a0NG 1 \u0110\u1ecaNH TUY\u1ebeN TR\u00caN N\u1ec0N M\u1ea0NG IP
1.1 M\u00f4 H\u00ecnh K\u1ebft N\u1ed1i H\u1ec7 Th\u1ed1ng M\u1edf OSI

M\u00f4 h\u00ecnh OSI ph\u00e2n chia nh\u1eefng qu\u00e1 tr\u00ecnh kh\u00e1c nhau c\u1ea7n thi\u1ebft trong m\u1ed9t phi\u00ean k\u1ebft n\u1ed1i th\u00e0nh 7 t\u1ea7ng v\u1edbi nh\u1eefng ch\u1ee9c n\u0103ng ri\u00eang bi\u1ec7t. Nh\u1eefng t\u1ea7ng n\u00e0y \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c t\u1ed5 ch\u1ee9c d\u1ef1a tr\u00ean tr\u00ecnh t\u1ef1 t\u1ef1 nhi\u00ean c\u1ee7a nh\u1eefng s\u1ef1 ki\u1ec7n x\u1ea3y ra trong qu\u00e1 tr\u00ecnh k\u1ebft n\u1ed1i.

M\u00f4 h\u00ecnh OSI l\u00e0 m\u00f4 h\u00ecnh khung, m\u1ed9t khu\u00f4n kh\u1ed5 th\u1ed1ng nh\u1ea5t, \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng \u0111\u1ec3 di\u1ec5n gi\u1ea3i
\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c d\u1eef li\u1ec7u \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c \u0111\u00f3ng g\u00f3i ra sao, v\u1eadn chuy\u1ec3n th\u1ebf n\u00e0o qua m\u1ea1ng, qua li\u00ean m\u1ea1ng. M\u00f4
h\u00ecnh OSI c\u0169ng gi\u1ea3i th\u00edch c\u00e1c g\u00f3i d\u1eef li\u1ec7u \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c \u0111\u00f3ng g\u00f3i qua c\u00e1c t\u1ea7ng nh\u01b0 th\u1ebf n\u00e0o t\u1eeb thi\u1ebft
b\u1ecb \u0111\u00edch v\u00e0 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c b\u00f3c t\u00e1ch ra sao \u1edf thi\u1ebft b\u1ecb ngu\u1ed3n, m\u1eb7c d\u00f9 c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 thi\u1ebft b\u1ecb ngu\u1ed3n v\u00e0 thi\u1ebft b\u1ecb
\u0111\u00edch n\u1eb1m trong c\u00e1c m\u00f4i tr\u01b0\u1eddng m\u1ea1ng kh\u00e1c nhau.

Trong m\u00f4 h\u00ecnh OSI c\u00f3 7 t\u1ea7ng, m\u1ed7i m\u1ed9t t\u1ea7ng minh ho\u1ea1 c\u00e1c ch\u1ee9c n\u0103ng \u0111\u1eb7c tr\u01b0ng c\u1ee7a h\u1ec7 th\u00f4ng m\u1ea1ng. Vi\u1ec7c ph\u00e2n chia c\u00e1c ch\u1ee9c n\u0103ng c\u1ee7a m\u1ea1ng ra 7 t\u1ea7ng r\u00f5 r\u00e0ng nh\u01b0 v\u1eady mang \u0111\u1ebfn nhi\u1ec1u \u01b0u \u0111i\u1ec3m:

H\u00ecnh 1.1 Bi\u1ec3u\u0111\u1ed3 m\u00f4 h\u00ecnh k\u1ebft n\u1ed1i 7 t\u1ea7ng c\u1ee7a h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng do ISO \u0111\u1ec1 xu\u1ea5t.
1. Ph\u00e2n t\u00e1ch k\u1ebft n\u1ed1i m\u1ea1ng ra th\u00e0nh nhi\u1ec1u th\u00e0nh ph\u1ea7n nh\u1ecf h\u01a1n, d\u1ec5 d\u00e0ng cho vi\u1ec7c qu\u1ea3n
l\u00fd ch\u00fang d\u1ec5 d\u00e0ng h\u01a1n.
2. Chu\u1ea9n ho\u00e1 c\u00e1c thi\u1ebft b\u1ecb m\u1ea1ng, cho ph\u00e9p nhi\u1ec1u nh\u00e0 s\u1ea3n xu\u1ea5t ph\u00e1t tri\u1ec3n v\u00e0 h\u1ed7 tr\u1ee3 c\u00e1c

thi\u1ebft b\u1ecb c\u1ee7a h\u1ecd.
3. Cho ph\u00e9p r\u1ea5t nhi\u1ec1u d\u1ea1ng c\u00e1c thi\u1ebft b\u1ecb ph\u1ea7n c\u1ee9ng v\u00e0 ph\u1ea7n m\u1ec1m k\u1ebft n\u1ed1i v\u1edbi nhau.
4. Vi\u1ec7c ph\u00e2n t\u00e1ch n\u00e0y cho ph\u00e9p kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng linh ho\u1ea1t c\u1ee7a t\u1eebng t\u1ea7ng, s\u1ef1 thay \u0111\u1ed5i \u1edf m\u1ed7i

t\u1ea7ng kh\u00f4ng l\u00e0m \u1ea3nh h\u01b0\u1edfng \u0111\u1ebfn ho\u1ea1t \u0111\u1ed9ng c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c t\u1ea7ng kh\u00e1c.

M\u1ed7i m\u1ed9t t\u1ea7ng th\u1ea5p h\u01a1n bao ph\u1ee7 l\u1ea5y m\u1ed9t nh\u00f3m c\u00e1c t\u1ea7ng cao h\u01a1n, \u0111\u1ec3 t\u1eeb \u0111\u00f3 c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 ph\u00e2n t\u00e1ch
ch\u00fang m\u1ed9t c\u00e1ch c\u00f3 hi\u1ec7u qu\u1ea3 v\u1edbi c\u00e1c ch\u1ee9c n\u0103ng c\u1ee7a t\u1ea7ng cao h\u01a1n. Theo c\u00e1ch n\u00e0y m\u1ed7i m\u1ed9t
t\u1ea7ng th\u1ef1c hi\u1ec7n m\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 c\u00e1c ch\u1ee9c n\u0103ng c\u1ea7n thi\u1ebft \u0111\u1ec3 cung c\u1ea5p m\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 d\u1ecbch v\u1ee5 cho t\u1ea7ng cao
h\u01a1n k\u1ebf ti\u1ebfp. Vi\u1ec7c ph\u00e2n t\u00e1ch c\u00e1c t\u1ea7ng cho ph\u00e9p m\u1ed7i m\u1ed9t t\u1ea7ng ri\u00eang c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 thay \u0111\u1ed5i m\u00e0
kh\u00f4ng \u1ea3nh h\u01b0\u1edfng \u0111\u1ebfn nh\u1eefng t\u1ea7ng c\u00f2n l\u1ea1i c\u1ee7a m\u00f4 h\u00ecnh.

1.2 M\u00f4 h\u00ecnh TCP/IP

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