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Applied Nonlinear Control

# Applied Nonlinear Control

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Applied Nonlinear Control Nguyen Tan Tien - 2002.3
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Chapter 1 Introduction1
C.1 Introduction
Why Nonlinear Control ?
Nonlinear control is a mature subject with a variety of powerful methods and a long history of successful industrial applications
Why
so many researchers have recently showed an activeinterest in the development and applications of nonlinear control methodologies ?

Improvement of existing control systems

Linear control methods rely on the key assumption of small range operation for the linear modelto be valid. When the required operation range is large, a linear controller is likely to perform very poorly or to be unstable, because the nonlinearities in the system cannot be properly compensatedfor. Nonlinear controllers may handle the nonlinearities in large range operation directly.Ex: pendulum

Analysis of hard nonlinearities
One of the assumptions of linear control is that the system model is indeed linearizable. However,in control systems, there are many nonlinearities whose discontinuous nature does not allow linear approximation.Ex: Coulomb friction, backlash

Dealing with model uncertainties
In designing linear controllers, it is usually necessary to assume that the parameters of the systemmodel are reasonably well known. However in many control problems involve uncertainties in themodel parameters. Nonlinearities can be intentionally introduced into the control part of a controlsystem so that model uncertainties can be tolerated.Two classes of nonlinear controllers for this purpose are robust controllers and adaptivecontrollers.Ex: parameter variations
Design simplicity
Good nonlinear control designs may be simpler and more intuitive than their linear counterparts.Ex:
Bu Ax x
+=
&

gu f  x
+=
&

Applied Nonlinear Control Nguyen Tan Tien - 2002.3
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Chapter 2 Phase Plane Analysis1
2. Phase Plane Analysis
Phase plane analysis is a graphical method for studyingsecond-order systems. This chapter’s objective is to gainfamiliarity of the nonlinear systems through the simplegraphical method.
2.1 Concepts of Phase Plane Analysis2.1.1 Phase portraits
The phase plane method is concerned with the graphical studyof second-order autonomous systems described by),(
2111
x x f  x
=
&
(2.1a)),(
2122
x x f  x
=
&
(2.1b)where
21
,
x x
: states of the system
21
,
f  f
: nonlinear functions of the statesGeometrically, the state space of this system is a plane having
21
,
x x
as coordinates. This plane is called
phase plane.
Thesolution of (2.1) with time varies from zero to infinity can berepresented as a curve in the phase plane. Such a curve iscalled a
phase plane trajectory
. A family of phase planetrajectories is called a
phase portrait
of a system.
Example 2.1 Phase portrait of a mass-spring system_______


1
=
1
=
m
0
)(
a
)(
b x x
&

Fig. 2.1 A mass-spring system and its phase portrait
The governing equation of the mass-spring system in Fig. 2.1is the familiar linear second-order differential equation
0
=+
x x
&&
(2.2)Assume that the mass is initially at rest, at length
0
x
. Then thesolution of this equation is)cos()(
0
x x
=
)sin()(
0
x x
=
&
Eliminating time
from the above equations, we obtain theequation of the trajectories
2022
x x x
=+
&
This represents a circle in the phase plane. Its plot is given inFig. 2.1.b.
__________________________________________________________________________________________
The nature of the system response corresponding to variousinitial conditions is directly displayed on the phase plane. Inthe above example, we can easily see that the systemtrajectories neither converge to the origin nor diverge toinfinity. They simply circle around the origin, indicating themarginal nature of the system’s stability.A major class of second-order systems can be described by thedifferential equations of the form),(
x x f  x
&&&
=
(2.3)In state space form, this dynamics can be representedwith
x x
=
1
and
x x
&
=
2
as follows
21
x x
=
&
),(
212
x x f  x
=
&

2.1.2 Singular points
A singular point is an equilibrium point in the phase plane.Since an equilibrium point is defined as a point where thesystem states can stay forever, this implies that
0x
=
&
, andusing (2.1)
==
0),( 0),(
212211
x x f  x x f
(2.4)For a linear system, there is usually only one singular pointalthough in some cases there can be a set of singular points.
Example 2.2 A nonlinear second-order system____________


x x
&
393-6-3-3-6 -9

Fig. 2.2 A mass-spring system and its phase portrait
Consider the system
036.0
2
=+++
x x x x
&&&
whose phase portrait is plot in Fig. 2.2.The system has two singular points, one at )0,0(and the othe at)0,3(
. The motion patterns of the system trajectories in thevicinity of the two singular points have different natures. Thetrajectories move towards the point0
=
x
while moving awayfrom the point
3
=
x
.
__________________________________________________________________________________________

Applied Nonlinear Control Nguyen Tan Tien - 2002.3
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Chapter 2 Phase Plane Analysis2
Why an equilibrium point of a second order system is called a
singular
point ? Let us examine the slope of the phase portrait.The slope of the phase trajectory passing through a point),(
21
x x
is determined by),(),(
21121212
x x f  x x f dxdx
=
(2.5)where
21
,
f  f
are assumed to be single valued functions. Thisimplies that the phase trajectories will not intersect. Atsingular point, however, the value of the slope is 0/0,
i.e.
, theslope is indeterminate. Many trajectories may intersect at such point, as seen from Fig. 2.2. This indeterminacy of the slopeaccounts for the adjective “singular”.Singular points are very important features in the phase plane.Examining the singular points can reveal a great deal of information about the properties of a system. In fact, thestability of linear systems is uniquely characterized by thenature of their singular points.Although the phase plane method is developed primarily for second-order systems, it can also be applied to the analysis of first-order systems of the form0)(
=+
x f  x
&
The difference now is that the phase portrait is composed of asingle trajectory.
Example 2.3 A first-order system_______________________

Consider the system
3
4
x x x
+=
&
there are three singular  points, defined by04
3
=+
x x
, namely,2,2,0
=
x
. The phase portrait of the system consists of a single trajectory, andis shown in Fig. 2.3.
x x
&
stableunstableunstable
-202

Fig. 2.3 Phase trajectory of a first-order system
The arrows in the figure denote the direction of motion, andwhether they point toward the left or the right at a particular  point is determined by the sign of
x
&
at that point. It is seenfrom the phase portrait of this system that the equilibrium point0
=
x
is stable, while the other two are unstable.
__________________________________________________________________________________________
2.1.3 Symmetry in phase plane portrait
Let us consider the second-order dynamics (2.3):
),(
x x f  x
&&&
=
.The slope of trajectories in the phase plane is of the form
x x x f dxdx
&
),(
2112
=
Since symmetry of the phase portraits also implies symmetryof the slopes (equal in absolute value but opposite in sign), wecan identify the following situations:),(),(
2121
x x f  x x f
=

1
x
axis.),(),(
2121
x x f  x x f
=

2
x
axis.),(),(
2121
x x f  x x f
=

symmetry about the origin.
2.2 Constructing Phase Portraits
There are a number of methods for constructing phase planetrajectories for linear or nonlinear system, such that so-calledanalytical method, the method of isoclines, the delta method,Lienard’s method, and Pell’s method.
Analytical method
There are two techniques for generating phase plane portraitsanalytically. Both technique lead to a functional relation between the two phase variables
1
x
and
2
x
in the form0),(
21
=
x x g
(2.6)where the constant
c
represents the effects of initial conditions(and, possibly, of external input signals). Plotting this relationin the phase plane for different initial conditions yields a phase portrait.The first technique involves solving (2.1) for
1
x
and
2
x
as afunction of time
,
i.e.
, )()(
11
g  x
=
and)()(
22
g  x
=
, andthen, eliminating time
from these equations. This techniquewas already illustrated in example 2.1.The second technique, on the other hand, involves directlyeliminating the time variable, by noting that),(),(
21121212
x x f  x x f dxdx
=
and then solving this equation for a functional relation between
1
x
and
2
x
. Let us use this technique to solve the mass-spring equation again.
Example 2.4 Mass-spring system_______________________

By noting that)//()/(
dt dxdx x x
&&&
=
, we can rewrite (2.2) as0
=+
xdx x x
&&
. Integration of this equation yields
2022
x x x
=+
&
.
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Most nonlinear systems cannot be easily solved by either of the above two techniques. However, for piece-wise linear systems, an important class of nonlinear systems, this can beconveniently used, as the following example shows.
Example 2.5 A satellite control system___________________

-U
p
1
p
1
θ
&
u
0
=
θ
JetsSattellite
θ

Fig. 2.4 Satellite control system
Fig. 2.4 shows the control system for a simple satellite model.The satellite, depicted in Fig. 2.5.a, is simply a rotational unitinertia controlled by a pair of thrusters, which can provideeither a positive constant torque
(positive firing) or negativetorque (negative firing). The purpose of the control system isto maintain the satellite antenna at a zero angle byappropriately firing the thrusters.

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