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Presidential Directives- Background and Overview

Presidential Directives- Background and Overview

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Published by: EyemanProphet on Oct 18, 2011
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Presidential Directives:Background and Overview
Updated April 23, 2007
Harold C. RelyeaSpecialist in American National GovernmentGovernment Division
 
Presidential Directives: Background and Overview
Summary
From the earliest days of the federal government, Presidents, exercisingmagisterial or executive power not unlike that of a monarch, from time to time haveissued directives establishing new policy, decreeing the commencement or cessationof some action, or ordaining that notice be given to some declaration. Theinstruments used by Presidents in these regards have come to be known by variousnames, and some have prescribed forms and purposes. Executive orders andproclamations are probably two of the best-known types, largely because of theirlong-standing use and publication in the
Federal Register 
and the
Code of Federal Regulations
. Others are less familiar, some because they are cloaked in officialsecrecy. There is, as well, the oral presidential directive, the sense of which iscaptured in an announcement that records what the President has prescribed orinstructed. This report provides an overview of the different kinds of directives thathave primarily been utilized by 20
th
century Presidents. Presenting background onthe historical development, accounting, use, and effect of such directives, it will beupdated as events suggest.
 
Contents
Introduction..................................................2Administrative Orders..........................................3Certificates...................................................4Designations of Officials........................................5Executive Orders..............................................5General Licenses..............................................6Homeland Security Presidential Directives..........................6Interpretations................................................7Letters on Tariffs and International Trade...........................7Military Orders................................................8National Security Instruments....................................8NSC Policy Papers.........................................9National Security Action Memoranda.........................10National Security Study Memoranda and National SecurityDecision Memoranda..................................10Presidential Review Memoranda and Presidential Directives.......11National Security Study Memoranda and National SecurityDecision Directives...................................11National Security Reviews and National Security Directives.......11Presidential Review Directives and PresidentialDecision Directives...................................11National Security Presidential Directives......................12Presidential Announcements....................................12Presidential Findings..........................................12Presidential Reorganization Plans................................13Proclamations................................................14Regulations.................................................15Source Tools................................................15 

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