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OFDM

OFDM

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Published by api-3777209

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Published by: api-3777209 on Oct 16, 2008
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03/18/2014

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\ue000K\u1ef9 thu\u1eadt \u0111\u01a1n s\u00f3ng mang

C\u00e1c k\u1ef9 thu\u1eadt tr\u1ea3i ph\u1ed5 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng trong c\u00e1c h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng th\u00f4ng tin di \u0111\u1ed9ng th\u1ebf h\u1ec7 ba c\u00f3 kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng ch\u1ed1ng l\u1ea1i pha \u0111inh v\u00e0 nhi\u1ec5u, song t\u1ed3n t\u1ea1i nh\u1eefng y\u00eau c\u1ea7u kh\u00f4ng th\u1ef1c hi\u1ec7n \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ch\u1eb3ng h\u1ea1n: n\u1ebfu ng\u01b0\u1eddi d\u00f9ng c\u1ea7n c\u00f3 t\u1ed1c \u0111\u1ed9 20 Mbps \u1edf giao di\u1ec7n v\u00f4 tuy\u1ebfn v\u00e0 h\u1ec7 s\u1ed1 tr\u1ea3i ph\u1ed5 l\u00e0 128 (gi\u00e1 tr\u1ecb \u0111i\u1ec3n h\u00ecnh hi\u1ec7n nay), d\u1eabn \u0111\u1ebfn ph\u1ea3i x\u1eed l\u00fd t\u1ed1c \u0111\u1ed9 2,56 Gbps theo th\u1eddi gian th\u1ef1c v\u00ec th\u1ebf c\u1ea7n c\u00f3 \u0111\u1ed9 r\u1ed9ng b\u0103ng t\u1ea7n l\u1edbn kh\u00f4ng th\u1ef1c t\u1ebf. M\u1eb7t kh\u00e1c, th\u1ea5y r\u00f5

\u2022Do t\u00e0i nguy\u00ean ph\u1ed5 t\u1ea7n h\u1ea1n h\u1eb9p, v\u00ec v\u1eady c\u1ea7n ph\u1ea3i s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng hi\u1ec7u qu\u1ea3.
\u2022Do nh\u1eefng kh\u00f3 kh\u0103n li\u00ean quan \u0111\u1ebfn hi\u1ec7u \u1ee9ng g\u1ea7n xa v\u00e0 c\u00f3 s\u1ef1 ti\u00eau th\u1ee5 c\u00f4ng su\u1ea5t
l\u1edbn.

Ngo\u00e0i ra, c\u00e1c k\u1ef9 thu\u1eadt \u0111\u01a1n s\u00f3ng mang \u0111\u1ed1i ph\u00f3 k\u00e9m hi\u1ec7u qu\u1ea3 \u0111\u1ed1i v\u1edbi pha \u0111inh v\u00e0 truy\u1ec1n
lan \u0111a \u0111\u01b0\u1eddng \u0111\u1eb7c bi\u1ec7t trong tr\u01b0\u1eddng h\u1ee3p t\u1ed1c \u0111\u1ed9 bit r\u1ea5t cao. \u1ede c\u00e1c ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u00e1p \u0111i\u1ec1u ch\u1ebf
truy\u1ec1n th\u1ed1ng M-QAM, M-PSK\u2026, khi t\u1ed1c \u0111\u1ed9 d\u1eef li\u1ec7u truy\u1ec1n cao th\u00ec k\u00e9o theo \u0111\u1ed9 r\u1ed9ng k\u00fd
hi\u1ec7u s\u1ebd gi\u1ea3m, \u0111\u1ebfn m\u1ed9t gi\u00e1 tr\u1ecb m\u00e0 \u0111\u1ed9 r\u1ed9ng k\u00fd hi\u1ec7u < tr\u1ea3i tr\u1ec5 c\u1ef1c \u0111\u1ea1i c\u1ee7a k\u00eanh, khi \u0111\u00f3 k\u00eanh
s\u1ebd l\u00e0 k\u00eanh l\u1ef1a ch\u1ecdn t\u1ea7n s\u1ed1 v\u00e0 g\u00e2y ISI cho t\u00edn hi\u1ec7u thu. \u0110\u00e2y l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t nh\u01b0\u1ee3c \u0111i\u1ec3m ch\u00ednh
khi\u1ebfn c\u00e1c h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng c\u00e1c ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u00e1p \u0111i\u1ec1u ch\u1ebf truy\u1ec1n th\u1ed1ng kh\u00f4ng th\u1ec3 truy\u1ec1n d\u1eef
li\u1ec7u v\u1edbi t\u1ed1c \u0111\u1ed9 cao, ho\u1eb7c gi\u00e1 th\u00e0nh r\u1ea5t cao \u0111\u1ed1i v\u1edbi nh\u1eefng d\u1ecbch v\u1ee5 y\u00eau c\u1ea7u t\u1ed1c \u0111\u1ed9 d\u1eef li\u1ec7u
cao.\ue000K\u1ef9 thu\u1eadt \u0111a s\u00f3ng mang tr\u1ef1c giao OFDM

OFDM l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t c\u00f4ng ngh\u1ec7 cho ph\u00e9p t\u0103ng \u0111\u1ed9 r\u1ed9ng k\u00fd hi\u1ec7u truy\u1ec1n d\u1eabn do \u0111\u00f3 dung sai \u0111a \u0111\u01b0\u1eddng l\u1edbn h\u01a1n r\u1ea5t nhi\u1ec1u so v\u1edbi c\u00e1c k\u1ef9 thu\u1eadt \u0111\u00e3 s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng tr\u01b0\u1edbc \u0111\u00e2y, cho ph\u00e9p kh\u1eafc ph\u1ee5c nh\u1eefng nh\u01b0\u1ee3c \u0111i\u1ec3m c\u0103n b\u1ea3n c\u1ee7a k\u1ef9 thu\u1eadt \u0111\u01a1n s\u00f3ng mang.

Ch\u01b0\u01a1ng 1
Gi\u1edbi thi\u1ec7u chung
1.1. Nh\u1eefng h\u1ea1n ch\u1ebf c\u1ee7a k\u1ef9 thu\u1eadt hi\u1ec7n h\u00e0nh
Ch\u01b0\u01a1ng 1: Gi\u1edbi thi\u1ec7u chung
1.2. Gh\u00e9p k\u00eanh ph\u00e2n chia theo t\u1ea7n s\u1ed1 tr\u1ef1c giao OFDM

Gh\u00e9p k\u00eanh ph\u00e2n chia theo t\u1ea7n s\u1ed1 tr\u1ef1c giao (OFDM) l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t k\u1ef9 thu\u1eadt \u0111i\u1ec1u ch\u1ebf c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 thay th\u1ebf cho CDMA. OFDM c\u00f3 \u01b0u \u0111i\u1ec3m v\u01b0\u1ee3t tr\u1ed9i so v\u1edbi nh\u1eefng h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng CDMA v\u00e0 cung c\u1ea5p ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u00e1p truy c\u1eadp kh\u00f4ng d\u00e2y cho h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng 4G.

\u00dd t\u01b0\u1edfng c\u1ee7a OFDM l\u00e0 chia to\u00e0n b\u1ed9 b\u0103ng t\u1ea7n truy\u1ec1n d\u1eabn th\u00e0nh nhi\u1ec1u s\u00f3ng mang con tr\u1ef1c giao nhau \u0111\u1ec3 truy\u1ec1n c\u00e1c t\u00edn hi\u1ec7u trong c\u00e1c s\u00f3ng mang con n\u00e0y song song. Theo \u0111\u00f3, lu\u1ed3ng d\u1eef li\u1ec7u t\u1ed1c \u0111\u1ed9 cao \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c chia th\u00e0nh nhi\u1ec1u lu\u1ed3ng t\u1ed1c \u0111\u1ed9 th\u1ea5p h\u01a1n l\u00e0m cho chu k\u1ef3 k\u00fd hi\u1ec7u t\u0103ng theo s\u1ed1 s\u00f3ng mang con.

\ue000\u01afu \u0111i\u1ec3m
\u2022OFDM l\u00e0 gi\u1ea3i ph\u00e1p ph\u00e2n t\u1eadp t\u1ea7n s\u1ed1. OFDM chia nh\u1ecf b\u0103ng t\u1ea7n k\u00eanh v\u00e0 ti\u1ebfn h\u00e0nh
truy\u1ec1n d\u1eef li\u1ec7u \u0111\u1ed9c l\u1eadp tr\u00ean c\u00e1c b\u0103ng t\u1ea7n k\u00eanh con n\u00e0y.
Ch\u01b0\u01a1ng 1: Gi\u1edbi thi\u1ec7u chung
\u2022OFDM \u0111\u1ea1t hi\u1ec7u qu\u1ea3 s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng ph\u1ed5 t\u1ea7n cao, do t\u00ednh tr\u1ef1c giao c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c th\u00e0nh ph\u1ea7n
s\u00f3ng mang con.
\u2022OFDM l\u00e0 \u1ee9ng c\u1eed vi\u00ean h\u1ee9a h\u1eb9n cho truy\u1ec1n d\u1eabn t\u1ed1c \u0111\u1ed9 cao trong m\u00f4i tr\u01b0\u1eddng di

\u0111\u1ed9ng. S\u1edf d\u0129 OFDM l\u00e0m \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c nh\u01b0 v\u1eady b\u1edfi v\u00ec, chu k\u1ef3 k\u00fd hi\u1ec7u t\u0103ng cho n\u00ean dung sai tr\u1ea3i tr\u1ec5 c\u1ee7a h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng t\u0103ng v\u00e0 hi\u1ec7u qu\u1ea3 s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng ph\u1ed5 t\u1ea7n cao c\u1ee7a c\u00f4ng ngh\u1ec7 OFDM.

\u2022OFDM cho ph\u00e9p gi\u1ea3m \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c \u1ea3nh h\u01b0\u1edfng c\u1ee7a tr\u1ec5 \u0111a \u0111\u01b0\u1eddng v\u00e0 k\u00eanh pha \u0111inh ch\u1ecdn

l\u1ecdc t\u1ea7n s\u1ed1 chuy\u1ec3n th\u00e0nh k\u00eanh pha \u0111inh ph\u1eb3ng. V\u00ec v\u1eady, OFDM l\u00e0 gi\u1ea3i ph\u00e1p \u0111\u1ed1i v\u1edbi t\u00ednh ch\u1ecdn l\u1ecdc t\u1ea7n s\u1ed1 c\u1ee7a k\u00eanh pha \u0111inh. Thu\u1eadn l\u1ee3i n\u00e0y c\u1ee7a OFDM cho ph\u00e9p c\u00e2n b\u1eb1ng k\u00eanh d\u1ec5 d\u00e0ng.

\u2022Do tr\u1ea3i r\u1ed9ng pha \u0111inh t\u1ea7n s\u1ed1 tr\u00ean nhi\u1ec1u k\u00fd hi\u1ec7u, n\u00ean l\u00e0m ng\u1eabu nhi\u00ean ho\u00e1 l\u1ed7i c\u1ee5m
(do pha \u0111inh Rayleigh g\u00e2y ra), n\u00ean thay v\u00ec m\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 k\u00fd hi\u1ec7u c\u1ea1nh nhau b\u1ecb m\u00e9o ho\u00e0n
to\u00e0n l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 k\u00fd hi\u1ec7u c\u1ea1nh nhau b\u1ecb m\u00e9o.
\u2022T\u00ednh kh\u1ea3 thi c\u1ee7a OFDM cao do \u1ee9ng d\u1ee5ng tri\u1ec7t \u0111\u1ec3 c\u00f4ng ngh\u1ec7 x\u1eed l\u00fd t\u00edn hi\u1ec7u s\u1ed1 v\u00e0
c\u00f4ng ngh\u1ec7 vi m\u1ea1ch VLSI.
\ue000Nh\u01b0\u1ee3c \u0111i\u1ec3m
\u2022OFDM nh\u1eady c\u1ea3m v\u1edbi d\u1ecbch Doppler c\u0169ng nh\u01b0 l\u1ec7ch t\u1ea7n gi\u1eefa c\u00e1c b\u1ed9 dao \u0111\u1ed9ng n\u1ed9i
ph\u00e1t v\u00e0 thu. Do t\u00ednh tr\u1ef1c giao c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c s\u00f3ng mang con r\u1ea5t nh\u1eady c\u1ea3m v\u1edbi k\u00eanh
truy\u1ec1n c\u00f3 d\u1ecbch Doppler l\u1edbn.
\u2022V\u1ea5n \u0111\u1ec1 \u0111\u1ed3ng b\u1ed9 th\u1eddi gian. T\u1ea1i m\u00e1y thu kh\u00f3 quy\u1ebft \u0111\u1ecbnh th\u1eddi \u0111i\u1ec3m b\u1eaft \u0111\u1ea7u c\u1ee7a k\u00fd
hi\u1ec7u FFT.
Ch\u01b0\u01a1ng 2\u0110\u1eb7c t\u00ednh k\u00eanh v\u00f4 tuy\u1ebfn di \u0111\u1ed9ng
2.1. M\u1edf \u0111\u1ea7u
Ch\u01b0\u01a1ng 2: \u0110\u1eb7c t\u00ednh k\u00eanh v\u00f4 tuy\u1ebfn di \u0111\u1ed9ng

Trong th\u00f4ng tin v\u00f4 tuy\u1ebfn di \u0111\u1ed9ng, c\u00e1c \u0111\u1eb7c t\u00ednh k\u00eanh v\u00f4 tuy\u1ebfn di \u0111\u00f4ng c\u00f3 t\u1ea7m quan tr\u1ecdng r\u1ea5t l\u1edbn, v\u00ec ch\u00fang \u1ea3nh h\u01b0\u1edfng tr\u1ef1c ti\u1ebfp l\u00ean ch\u1ea5t l\u01b0\u1ee3ng truy\u1ec1n d\u1eabn v\u00e0 dung l\u01b0\u1ee3ng. Trong c\u00e1c h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng v\u00f4 tuy\u1ebfn th\u00f4ng th\u01b0\u1eddng (kh\u00f4ng ph\u1ea3i c\u00e1c h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng v\u00f4 tuy\u1ebfn th\u00edch \u1ee9ng), c\u00e1c t\u00ednh ch\u1ea5t th\u1ed1ng k\u00ea d\u00e0i h\u1ea1n c\u1ee7a k\u00eanh \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c \u0111o v\u00e0 \u0111\u00e1nh gi\u00e1 tr\u01b0\u1edbc khi thi\u1ebft k\u1ebf h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng. Nh\u01b0ng trong c\u00e1c h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng \u0111i\u1ec1u ch\u1ebf th\u00edch \u1ee9ng, v\u1ea5n \u0111\u1ec1 n\u00e0y ph\u1ee9c t\u1ea1p h\u01a1n. \u0110\u1ec3 \u0111\u1ea3m b\u1ea3o ho\u1ea1t \u0111\u1ed9ng th\u00edch \u1ee9ng \u0111\u00fang, c\u1ea7n ph\u1ea3i li\u00ean t\u1ee5c nh\u1eadn \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c th\u00f4ng tin v\u1ec1 c\u00e1c t\u00ednh ch\u1ea5t th\u1ed1ng k\u00ea ng\u1eafn h\u1ea1n th\u1eadm ch\u00ed t\u1ee9c th\u1eddi c\u1ee7a k\u00eanh.

C\u00e1c y\u1ebfu t\u1ed1 ch\u00ednh h\u1ea1n ch\u1ebf h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng th\u00f4ng tin di \u0111\u1ed9ng b\u1eaft ngu\u1ed3n t\u1eeb m\u00f4i tr\u01b0\u1eddng v\u00f4 tuy\u1ebfn.
C\u00e1c y\u1ebfu t\u1ed1 n\u00e0y l\u00e0:
\u2022Suy hao: c\u01b0\u1eddng \u0111\u1ed9 tr\u01b0\u1eddng gi\u1ea3m theo kho\u1ea3ng c\u00e1ch. Th\u00f4ng th\u01b0\u1eddng suy hao n\u1eb1m
trong kho\u1ea3ng t\u1eeb 50 \u0111\u1ebfn 150 dB t\u00f9y theo kho\u1ea3ng c\u00e1ch
\u2022Che t\u1ed1i: c\u00e1c v\u1eadt c\u1ea3n gi\u1eefa tr\u1ea1m g\u1ed1c v\u00e0 m\u00e1y di \u0111\u1ed9ng l\u00e0m suy gi\u1ea3m th\u00eam t\u00edn hi\u1ec7u
\u2022Pha \u0111inh \u0111a \u0111\u01b0\u1eddng v\u00e0 ph\u00e2n t\u00e1n th\u1eddi gian: ph\u1ea3n x\u1ea1, nhi\u1ec5u x\u1ea1 v\u00e0 t\u00e1n x\u1ea1 l\u00e0m m\u00e9o

t\u00edn hi\u1ec7u thu b\u1eb1ng c\u00e1ch tr\u1ea3i r\u1ed9ng ch\u00fang theo th\u1eddi gian. Ph\u1ee5 thu\u1ed9c v\u00e0o b\u0103ng th\u00f4ng c\u1ee7a h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng, y\u1ebfu t\u1ed1 n\u00e0y d\u1eabn \u0111\u1ebfn thay \u0111\u1ed5i nhanh c\u01b0\u1eddng \u0111\u1ed9 t\u00edn hi\u1ec7u v\u00e0 g\u00e2y ra nhi\u1ec5u giao thoa gi\u1eefa c\u00e1c k\u00fd hi\u1ec7u (ISI: Inter Symbol Interference).

\u2022Nhi\u1ec5u: c\u00e1c m\u00e1y ph\u00e1t kh\u00e1c s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng c\u00f9ng t\u1ea7n s\u1ed1 hay c\u00e1c t\u1ea7n s\u1ed1 l\u00e2n c\u1eadn kh\u00e1c g\u00e2y
nhi\u1ec5u cho t\u00edn hi\u1ec7u mong mu\u1ed1n. \u0110\u00f4i khi nhi\u1ec5u \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c coi l\u00e0 t\u1ea1p \u00e2m b\u1ed5 sung.

C\u00f3 th\u1ec3 ph\u00e2n c\u00e1c k\u00eanh v\u00f4 tuy\u1ebfn th\u00e0nh hai lo\u1ea1i: "pha \u0111inh ph\u1ea1m vi r\u1ed9ng" v\u00e0 "pha \u0111inh ph\u1ea1m vi h\u1eb9p". C\u00e1c m\u00f4 h\u00ecnh truy\u1ec1n s\u00f3ng truy\u1ec1n th\u1ed1ng \u0111\u00e1nh gi\u00e1 c\u00f4ng su\u1ea5t trung b\u00ecnh thu \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c t\u1ea1i c\u00e1c kho\u1ea3ng c\u00e1ch cho tr\u01b0\u1edbc so v\u1edbi m\u00e1y ph\u00e1t. \u0110\u1ed1i v\u1edbi c\u00e1c kho\u1ea3ng c\u00e1ch l\u1edbn (v\u00e0i km), c\u00e1c m\u00f4 h\u00ecnh truy\u1ec1n s\u00f3ng ph\u1ea1m vi r\u1ed9ng \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng. Pha \u0111inh ph\u1ea1m vi r\u1ed9ng \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c bi\u1ec3u th\u1ecb b\u1eb1ng t\u1ed5n hao do truy\u1ec1n s\u00f3ng kho\u1ea3ng c\u00e1ch xa. Pha \u0111inh ph\u1ea1m vi h\u1eb9p m\u00f4 t\u1ea3 s\u1ef1 th\u0103ng gi\u00e1ng nhanh s\u00f3ng v\u00f4 tuy\u1ebfn theo bi\u00ean \u0111\u1ed9, pha v\u00e0 tr\u1ec5 \u0111a \u0111\u01b0\u1eddng trong kho\u1ea3ng th\u1eddi gian ng\u1eafn hay tr\u00ean c\u1ef1 ly di chuy\u1ec3n ng\u1eafn. Pha \u0111inh trong tr\u01b0\u1eddng h\u1ee3p n\u00e0y g\u00e2y ra do truy\u1ec1n s\u00f3ng \u0111a \u0111\u01b0\u1eddng.

C\u00e1c k\u00eanh v\u00f4 tuy\u1ebfn l\u00e0 c\u00e1c k\u00eanh mang t\u00ednh ng\u1eabu nhi\u00ean, n\u00f3 c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 thay \u0111\u1ed5i t\u1eeb c\u00e1c \u0111\u01b0\u1eddng truy\u1ec1n th\u1eb3ng \u0111\u1ebfn c\u00e1c \u0111\u01b0\u1eddng b\u1ecb che ch\u1eafn nghi\u00eam tr\u1ecdng \u0111\u1ed1i v\u1edbi c\u00e1c v\u1ecb tr\u00ed kh\u00e1c nhau. H\u00ecnh 2.1(a) cho th\u1ea5y r\u1eb1ng trong mi\u1ec1n kh\u00f4ng gian, m\u1ed9t k\u00eanh c\u00f3 c\u00e1c \u0111\u1eb7c tr\u01b0ng kh\u00e1c nhau (bi\u00ean \u0111\u1ed9 ch\u1eb3ng h\u1ea1n) t\u1ea1i c\u00e1c v\u1ecb tr\u00ed kh\u00e1c nhau. Ta g\u1ecdi \u0111\u1eb7c t\u00ednh n\u00e0y l\u00e0 t\u00ednh ch\u1ecdn l\u1ecdc kh\u00f4ng gian (hay ph\u00e2n t\u1eadp kh\u00f4ng gian) v\u00e0 pha \u0111inh t\u01b0\u01a1ng \u1ee9ng v\u1edbi n\u00f3 l\u00e0 pha \u0111inh ch\u1ecdn l\u1ecdc kh\u00f4ng gian. H\u00ecnh 2.1(b) cho th\u1ea5y trong mi\u1ec1n t\u1ea7n s\u1ed1, k\u00eanh c\u00f3 c\u00e1c \u0111\u1eb7c t\u00ednh kh\u00e1c nhau t\u1ea1i c\u00e1c t\u1ea7n s\u1ed1 kh\u00e1c nhau. Ta g\u1ecdi \u0111\u1eb7c t\u00ednh n\u00e0y l\u00e0 t\u00ednh ch\u1ecdn l\u1ecdc t\u1ea7n s\u1ed1 (hay ph\u00e2n t\u1eadp t\u1ea7n s\u1ed1) v\u00e0 pha \u0111inh t\u01b0\u01a1ng \u1ee9ng v\u1edbi n\u00f3 l\u00e0 pha \u0111inh ch\u1ecdn l\u1ecdc t\u1ea7n s\u1ed1. H\u00ecnh 2.1(c) cho th\u1ea5y r\u1eb1ng trong mi\u1ec1n th\u1eddi gian, k\u00eanh c\u00f3 c\u00e1c \u0111\u1eb7c t\u00ednh kh\u00e1c nhau t\u1ea1i c\u00e1c th\u1eddi \u0111i\u1ec3m kh\u00e1c nhau. Ta g\u1ecdi \u0111\u1eb7c t\u00ednh n\u00e0y l\u00e0 t\u00ednh ch\u1ecdn l\u1ecdc th\u1eddi gian (hay ph\u00e2n t\u1eadp th\u1eddi gian) v\u00e0 pha \u0111inh do n\u00f3 g\u00e2y ra l\u00e0 pha \u0111inh ph\u00e2n t\u1eadp th\u1eddi gian. D\u1ef1a tr\u00ean c\u00e1c \u0111\u1eb7c t\u00ednh tr\u00ean c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 ph\u00e2n chia pha \u0111inh k\u00eanh th\u00e0nh:

Phan Minh \u0110\u1ee9c \u2013 K54B
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