Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
2Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
ICT use and teacher expertise

ICT use and teacher expertise

Ratings: (0)|Views: 31 |Likes:

More info:

Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Nancy Castillo Valenzuela on Oct 18, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

11/26/2012

pdf

text

original

 
339
M
EASURING
 
THE
L
EVEL
 
OF
 
USE
 
AND
E
XTENT
 
OF
I
NTEGRATION
 
OF
ICT: A
N
A
DAPTATION
 
OF
 
THE
L
EVEL
 
OF
U
SE
(L
O
U) M
ODEL
 N
ANCY
C
ASTILLO
V
ALENZUELA
Universidad del Bío-BíoChile
ncas till @ ubiobio.cl
ABSTRACT
Evidence from research has consistently shown that school teachers have not movedto higher levels of use of information and communication technologies (ICT) andhow detrimental this is for the effective integration of ICT in the teaching practice.Several models of innovation and change have been used to describe and analysethe implementation of ICT in education; however, in these models little attentionhas been paid to the importance of teacher knowledge and how this can influencethe level of use and extent of ICT integration that a teacher can attain. This situationhinders the possibility of evaluating how ICT resources are being used and integratedinto the teaching practice, so that measures can be taken to remedy any deficiencies.This paper presents an adaptation made to the Level of Use Model (LoU) [23] - acomponent of the Concerns-Based Adoption Model - which was used to measurethe level of use and extent of integration of ICT in a group of secondary schoolteachers in Chile, as part of a doctoral research study. With further refinements,this model will allow reformers or advocates of ICT and researchers to evaluate howICT is being integrated and used, and thereby provide the necessary assistance or interventions teachers will need at particular stages in the implementation process.
RESUMEN
La evidencia internacional indica que los profesores y profesoras del sistemaescolar, no han progresado en el logro de niveles altos de uso de las tecnologías deinformación y comunicación (TIC) ni tampoco integrarlas de forma efectiva en todos
Castillo, N. (2007). Measuring the level of use and extent of integration of ICT: An adaptation of the Level of Use (LoU) Model. En J. Sánchez (Ed.): Nuevas Ideas en Informática Educativa, Volumen 3, pp.339-354, Santiago de Chile: LOM Ediciones.
 
340
los aspectos de su práctica pedagógica. La investigación educacional ha utilizadomodelos de innovación y de cambio para describir y analizar la implementación delas TIC en educación, sin embargo, estos modelos no dan suficienteimportanciaal conocimiento pedagógico del profesor/a y cómo este puede influirenelnivelde uso e integración curricular de estas tecnologías. Esta situación hace quesea difícil evaluar la forma cómo se están utilizando e integrando las TIC en la práctica pedagógica, de forma tal que se pueda corregir cualquier deficiencia.El presente trabajo presenta una adaptación realizada al Modelo de Nivel de Uso [23] – componente del Modelo de Adopción Basado en Intereses (CBAM) - el cual seutilizó para medir el grado de utilización e integración curricular de varias tiposde programas informáticos en un grupo de profesores/as de enseñanza media enChile, como parte de una investigación doctoral. Con mayores ajustes, este modelo permitirá a administradores educacionales e investigadores, evaluar las formascómo las TIC se integran y utilizan, de manera tal de poder entregar al profesoradoel apoyo que requieren, en las distintas etapas en el proceso de implementación.
KEYWORDS
Level of Use Model (LoU), Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM), integration of ICT, innovation and change models, implementación de TIC, teacher knowledge.
INTRODUCTION
Research evidence has consistently indicated that teachers have not moved in their  progression to more advanced levels of use and integration of ICT, showing thus amismatch between the level of use of this technology as expected by society, andthe actual level of use of ICT by teachers. Studies conducted in Great Britain, NewZealand, Australia, Canada and the USA have shown that ICT is not being used byteachers as frequently as expected [e.g. 10, 12, 13, 20, 21, 24, 37, 39, 40], and thatthere is variation in levels of use of this technology based on subject areas, withhighest levels found generally in core subjects [4]. More recent evidence indicatesthat impact is most clearly seen when teachers are able to integrate a range of ICTresources in a combined manner, so that innovative approaches to teaching andlearning can be developed [9].Research evidence from Chile has shown mixed results with some studies presentinga similar pattern to that found internationally, which supports the limited use of ICT in teaching [19, 31, 34], while others [e.g. 2, 8, 32] indicating that the majorityof secondary school teachers have integrated ICT in their administrative work more easily, particularly in the planning phase of teaching, but some teachers havemanaged to use this technology in a few subjects such as history, geography andmathematics. Other studies [e.g. 15, 31, 33] have shown that very few teachers are
 N 
 ANCY 
 ASTILLO
 
341
using ICT in innovative ways (for example, involving pupils in interdisciplinary projects; changing traditional roles; developing research type of activities andcollaborative work; combining a repertoire of teaching strategies and using a set of resources with a high number of pupils and a few computers), which suggests thatfurther assistance in specificaspectsofteacherspedagogyneedstobemade.Several models of innovation and change have been used to describe and analyzethe use of ICT in education (e.g.: Rogers’s model of Diffusion of Innovations, theACOT Project etc.). Although these models recognize the evolutionary nature of innovation adoption and that appropriate strategies need to be developed to respondto individual stages of development, these frameworks, however, do not consider theevaluation of the implementation of a change initiative, in particular the evaluationof the ways in which ICT is implemented.There is a need for a reliable theoretical model of ICT integration for differentsubjects. In our educational context in Chile, Sánchez, [33] has proposed athree-stage model of integration and six methods of curricular use of technology.Although, important for the analysis of the implementation of ICT in schools, thisframework, however, does not take into account the complexity and variety of ICTresources available, which in turn may influenceteacherspedagogyandthewaysin which subject areas are conceived.
THE LEVEL OF USE (LOU) MODEL
One model, which has been used for assessing the implementation of innovationsin several fieldsofknowledge,istheConcerns-BasedAdoptionModel(CBAM).This framework examines the process of innovation change by using three distinctdimensions and corresponding instruments: The Stages of Concern Model, TheLevel of Use (LoU) Model, and The Innovation Components Framework. Theassumption of the CBAM is that change is a process, not an event; change is a highly personal experience; and personal concerns are legitimate [17].Due to its diagnostic qualities and evaluative purposes, the CBAM has beenwidely applied in North America, Western Europe, and Australia, within a rangeof disciplines to monitor implementation and plan the necessary assistance [1]. TheLoU model allows the researcher to register the progress that the teacher has madein implementing an educational innovation [38]. Several studies have used thismodel to characterise the uptake and use of educational innovations including ICTin teaching [e.g. 16, 18, 26, 27, 28, 38].Adaptation of the model to cultural differences has been made in The Netherlands[38]; however, according to Anderson (1997), there has been little critical analysis or further elaboration of the model since the mid-1980s, the tendency has been to apply
 EASURING
 
THE 
 
 LEVEL
 
OF 
 
USE 
 
 AND
 
 EXTENT 
 
OF 
 
 INTEGRATION 
 
OF 
  ICT: A
 N 
 
 ADAPTATION 
 
OF 
 
THE 
L
 EVEL
 
OF 
SE 
(L
O
U) M 
ODEL

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->