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A. M. MacLeod, et. al.. "Computers."
Copyright 2000 CRC Press LLC. <http://www.engnetbase.com>.
\u00a9 1999 by CRC Press LLC
Com puters
86.1 Introduction
86.2 Computer-Based Instrumentation Systems
The Single-Board Computer \u2022 Computer Bus Architectures \u2022
Industrial Computers \u2022 Software \u2022 System Development
86.3 Computer Buses
The VMEbus (IEEE P1014) \u2022 Multibus II (IEEE 1296) \u2022 Other
System Buses for Small-Scale Systems
86.4 Personal Computer Buses
ISA Bus \u2022 EISA Bus \u2022 PCMCIA \u2022 PC/104
86.5 Peripherals
Internal Cards \u2022 External Peripherals
86.6 Software for Instrumentation Systems
Virtual Instruments \u2022 Working Directly with Peripherals \u2022 The
Choice of Operating System
86.1 Introduction

Computers are an essential feature of most instrumentation systems because of their ability to supervise the collection of data and allow information to be processed, stored, and displayed. Many modern instruments are capable of providing a remote user with access to measurement information via standard computer networks.

86.2 Computer-Based Instrumentation Systems

The main features of a computer-based instrumentation system are shown inFigure 86.1. The actual implementation of such systems will depend on the application. Many commercially produced instru- ments such as spectrophotometers or digital storage oscilloscopes are themselves integrated computer- based measurement systems. These \u201cstandalone\u201d instruments may be \ufb01tted with interfaces such as IEEE- 488 or RS-232 to allow them to be controlled from personal computers (PCs) and also to support the transfer of data to the PC for further processing and display. Alternatively, the instrumentation system may be based around a PC/workstation or an industrial bus system such as a VME or Multibus, allowing the user the ability to customize the computer to suit the application by selecting an appropriate set of add-on cards. Recently, the introduction of laptop and notebook PCs \ufb01tted with PCMCIA interfaces with input/output capability has provided opportunities for the development of highly portable instru- mentation systems.

The Single-Board Computer
The simplest form of a computer is based around the single-board computer (SBC) which contains a
microprocessor, memory, and interfaces for communicating with other electronic systems. The earliest
A. M. MacLeod
University of Abertay Dundee,
Dundee, United Kingdom
P.F. Martin
University of Abertay Dundee,
Dundee, United Kingdom
W.A. Gillespie
University of Abertay Dundee,
Dundee, United Kingdom
\u00a9 1999 by CRC Press LLC

form of personal computers simply comprised an SBC together with a keyboard, display, disk drives, and a power supply unit. Today, the SBC still offers a solution for the addition of limited intelligence to instrumentation systems as well as forming an element of most computer systems, e.g., as the mother- board of a PC.

An overview of a simple SBC is shown inFigure 86.2. The microprocessor, which contains the central processor unit, is responsible for executing the computer program and for controlling the \ufb02ow of data around the SBC. The random access memory (RAM) acts as a temporary (i.e., volatile) storage area for both program code and data. On the motherboard of a PC the read only memory (ROM) is largely used for storing the low-level code used to access the input/output hardware, e.g., the BIOS (basic input output system). The operating system and applications software are loaded into RAM from the disk unit. In small, dedicated systems such as an oscilloscope the ROM may be used to store the program code to avoid the need for a disk drive. For small production runs or development work erasable programmable ROM (EPROM) is used as an alternative to ROM, allowing the code to be upgraded without the high cost of commissioning a new ROM chip from the manufacturers.

Data are transferred around the SBC on its data bus, which will be typically 8, 16, or 32 bits wide (corresponding to the number of bits that can be transmitted at the same time). SBCs with 8-bit data buses are less complex and consequently of lower cost than 32-bit systems and may well be the optimum solution for those process control applications which require minimal processing of 8-bit data, e.g., from temperature and position sensors. However the 32-bit bus width of most modern PCs and workstations is essential to ensure the fast operation of Windows-based applications software.

The address bus is used to identify the destination of the data on the data bus. Data transfer is usually between the microprocessor and the memory or interfaces. However, some SBCs support DMA (direct memory access) which allows data to be transferred directly between interfaces and memory without the need the information to pass through the processor. DMA is inherently faster than program-driven data transfer and is used for moving large blocks of data, e.g., loading programs from disk or the transfer of digitized video images.

FIGURE 86.1Elements of a computer-based instrumentation system.

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