Resistance of Metals \u2022 Who Uses RTDs? Common Assemblies and Applications \u2022 Overview of Platinum RTDs \u2022 Temperature Coef\ufb01cient of Resistance \u2022 RTD Construction \u2022 Calibration \u2022 Use of RTDs Today \u2022 The Future of RTD Technology \u2022
Thermal Properties of NTC Thermistors \u2022 Electrical
Properties of NTC Thermistors \u2022 Linearization and Signal
The Simplest Thermocouple \u2022 Simple Thermocouple
Thermometry \u2022 Thermoelectric Effects \u2022 Realistic
Thermocouple Circuits \u2022 Grounding, Shielding, and Noise \u2022
Thermal Coupling \u2022 Thermocouple Materials \u2022 The
Functional Model of Thermoelectric Circuits \u2022
Inhomogeneity \u2022 Calibration \u2022 Thermocouple Failure and
Validation \u2022 Environmental Compatibility \u2022 Data Acquisition \u2022 Signal Transmission \u2022 Sources of Thermocouple Application Information \u2022 Summary
Temperature Sensors \u2022 Other Applications of Semiconductor Sensing Techniques \u2022 Temperature Sensing in Power ICs for Fault Protection and Diagnostics \u2022 Reliability Implications of Temperature to Electronic Components \u2022 Semiconductor
General Description \u2022 Liquid Expansion \u2022 Time-Constant Effects \u2022 Thermal Capacity Effects \u2022 Separated Columns \u2022 Immersion Errors \u2022 Organic Liquids \u2022 Storage \u2022 High
The \ufb01rst known use of differential thermal expansion of metals in a mechanical device was that of the English clockmaker John Harrison in 1735. Harrison used two dissimilar metals in a clock escapement to account for the changes in temperature on board a ship. This \ufb01rst marine chronometer used a gridiron of two metals that altered the \ufb02ywheel period of the clock through a simple displacement. This mechanical actuation, resulting from the different thermal expansivities of two metals in contact, is the basis for all bimetallic actuators used today.
The bimetallic effect is now used in numerous applications ranging from domestic appliances to compensation in satellites. The effects can be used in two ways: either as an actuator or as a temperature measuring system. A bimetallic actuator essentially consists of two metal strips \ufb01xed together. If the two metals have different expansitivities, then as the temperature of the actuator changes, one element will expand more than the other, causing the device to bend out of the plane. This mechanical bending can then be used to actuate an electromechanical switch or be part of an electrical circuit itself, so that contact of the bimetallic device to an electrode causes a circuit to be made. Although in its simplest form a bimetallic actuator can be constructed from two \ufb02at pieces in metal, in practical terms a whole range of shapes are used to provide maximum actuation or maximum force during thermal cycling.
As a temperature measuring device, the bimetallic element, similar in design to that of the actuator above, can be used to determine the ambient temperature if the degree of bending can be measured. The advantage of such a system is that the amount of bending can be mechanically ampli\ufb01ed to produce a large and hence easily measurable displacement.
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