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Robert J. Sandberg. "Temperature."
Copyright 2000 CRC Press LLC. <http://www.engnetbase.com>.
\u00a9 1999 by CRC Press LLC
32.1 Bimaterials Thermometers
Linear Bimaterial Strip \u2022 Industrial Applications \u2022 Advanced
Applications \u2022 De\ufb01ning Terms
32.2 Resistive Thermometers
Introduction to Resistance Temperature Detectors \u2022

Resistance of Metals \u2022 Who Uses RTDs? Common Assemblies and Applications \u2022 Overview of Platinum RTDs \u2022 Temperature Coef\ufb01cient of Resistance \u2022 RTD Construction \u2022 Calibration \u2022 Use of RTDs Today \u2022 The Future of RTD Technology \u2022

De\ufb01ning Terms
32.3 Thermistor Thermometers

Thermal Properties of NTC Thermistors \u2022 Electrical
Properties of NTC Thermistors \u2022 Linearization and Signal
Conditioning Techniques

32.4 Thermocouple Thermometers

The Simplest Thermocouple \u2022 Simple Thermocouple
Thermometry \u2022 Thermoelectric Effects \u2022 Realistic
Thermocouple Circuits \u2022 Grounding, Shielding, and Noise \u2022
Thermal Coupling \u2022 Thermocouple Materials \u2022 The
Functional Model of Thermoelectric Circuits \u2022
Inhomogeneity \u2022 Calibration \u2022 Thermocouple Failure and

Validation \u2022 Environmental Compatibility \u2022 Data Acquisition \u2022 Signal Transmission \u2022 Sources of Thermocouple Application Information \u2022 Summary

32.5 Semiconductor Junction Thermometers
The Transistor as a Temperature Sensor \u2022 Thermal Properties
of Semiconductors: De\ufb01ning Equations \u2022 Integrated

Temperature Sensors \u2022 Other Applications of Semiconductor Sensing Techniques \u2022 Temperature Sensing in Power ICs for Fault Protection and Diagnostics \u2022 Reliability Implications of Temperature to Electronic Components \u2022 Semiconductor

Temperature Sensor Packaging \u2022 De\ufb01ning Terms
32.6 Infrared Thermometers
Thermal Radiation: Physical Laws \u2022 Emissivity \u2022 Blackbody \u2022
Detectors for Thermal Radiation \u2022 Pyrometers \u2022 IR
Thermometers \u2022 Components of IR Thermometers \u2022 Some
Special Applications
32.7 Pyroelectric Thermometers
Pyroelectric Effect \u2022 Pyroelectric Materials \u2022 Manufacturing
Process \u2022 Pyroelectric Sensors \u2022 Applications
Robert J. Stephenson
University of Cambridge
Armelle M. Moulin
University of Cambridge
Mark E. Welland
University of Cambridge
Jim Burns
Burns Engineering Inc.
Meyer Sapoff
MS Consultants
R. P. Reed
Proteun Services
Randy Frank
Motorola, Inc.
Jacob Fraden
Advanced Monitors Corporation
J.V. Nicholas
Industrial Research Limited
Franco Pavese
CNR Instituto di Metrologia
\u201cG. Colonnetti\u201d
Jan Stasiek
Technical University of Golansk
Tolestyn Madaj
Technical University of Golansk
Jaroslaw Mikielewicz
Institute of Fluid Flow Machinery
Brian Culshaw
University of Strathclyde
\u00a9 1999 by CRC Press LLC
32.8 Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers

General Description \u2022 Liquid Expansion \u2022 Time-Constant Effects \u2022 Thermal Capacity Effects \u2022 Separated Columns \u2022 Immersion Errors \u2022 Organic Liquids \u2022 Storage \u2022 High

Accuracy \u2022 De\ufb01ning Terms
32.9 Manometric Thermometers
Vapor Pressure \u2022 Gas Thermometry
32.10 Temperature Indicators
Melting and Shape/Size Changing Temperature Indicators \u2022
Color-Change Temperature Indicators
32.11 Fiber-Optic Thermometers
Fiber Optic Temperature Sensors \u2022 Fiber Optic Point
Temperature Measurement Systems \u2022 Distributed and Quasi-
distributed Optical Fiber Temperature Measurement
Systems \u2022 Applications for Optical Fiber Temperature Probes
32.1 Bimaterials Thermometers
Robert J. Stephenson, Armelle M. Moulin, and Mark E. Welland

The \ufb01rst known use of differential thermal expansion of metals in a mechanical device was that of the English clockmaker John Harrison in 1735. Harrison used two dissimilar metals in a clock escapement to account for the changes in temperature on board a ship. This \ufb01rst marine chronometer used a gridiron of two metals that altered the \ufb02ywheel period of the clock through a simple displacement. This mechanical actuation, resulting from the different thermal expansivities of two metals in contact, is the basis for all bimetallic actuators used today.

The bimetallic effect is now used in numerous applications ranging from domestic appliances to compensation in satellites. The effects can be used in two ways: either as an actuator or as a temperature measuring system. A bimetallic actuator essentially consists of two metal strips \ufb01xed together. If the two metals have different expansitivities, then as the temperature of the actuator changes, one element will expand more than the other, causing the device to bend out of the plane. This mechanical bending can then be used to actuate an electromechanical switch or be part of an electrical circuit itself, so that contact of the bimetallic device to an electrode causes a circuit to be made. Although in its simplest form a bimetallic actuator can be constructed from two \ufb02at pieces in metal, in practical terms a whole range of shapes are used to provide maximum actuation or maximum force during thermal cycling.

As a temperature measuring device, the bimetallic element, similar in design to that of the actuator above, can be used to determine the ambient temperature if the degree of bending can be measured. The advantage of such a system is that the amount of bending can be mechanically ampli\ufb01ed to produce a large and hence easily measurable displacement.

The basic principle of a bimetallic actuator is shown in Figure 32.1. Here, two metal strips of differing
thermal expansion are bonded together. When the temperature of the assembly is changed, in the absence
FIGURE 32.1Linear bimetallic strip.

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