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Introduction

1.1 Signals and systems

1.2 Physics, mathematics, and engineering

1.3 Electrical and computer engineering

1.4 A course on signals and systems

1.5 Confession of the author

1.6 A note to the reader

Signals

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Time

2.2.1 Time – Real number line

2.2.2 Where are time 0 and time −∞?

2.3 Continuous-time (CT) signals

2.3.1 Staircase approximation of CT signals – Sampling

2.4 Discrete-time (DT) signals

2.4.1 Interpolation – Construction

2.6.1 Real-time and non-real-time processing

2.7. CT STEP AND REAL-EXPONENTIAL FUNCTIONS - TIME CONSTANT 27

2.7 CT step and real-exponential functions - time con-

2.7.1 Time shifting

2.8 DT impulse sequences

2.8.1 Step and real-exponential sequences - time constant

Problems

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Complex numbers

3.2.1 Angles - Modulo

3.3 Matrices

3.4 Mathematical notations

3.5 Mathematical conditions used in signals and systems

3.5.1 Signals with ﬁnite total energy – Real-world signals

3.6 A mathematical proof

3.7 MATLAB

3.7.1 How Figures 1.1–1.3 are generated

4.1 Introduction

4.1.1 Frequency of CT pure sinusoids

4.2 CT periodic signals

4.2.1 Fourier series of CT periodic signals

4.3 Frequency spectra of CT aperiodic signals

4.3.1 Why we stress Fourier transform and downplay Fourier series

4.4 Distribution of energy in frequencies

4.4.1 Frequency Shifting and modulation

4.4.2 Time-Limited Bandlimited Theorem

4.4.3 Time duration and frequency bandwidth

4.5 Frequency spectra of CT pure sinusoids in (−∞,∞)

5.1 Introduction

5.1.1 From the deﬁnition of integration

5.2 Relationship between spectra of x(t) and x(nT)

5.2.1 Sampling theorem

5.2.2 Can the phase spectrum of x(t) be computed from x(nT)?

5.2.3 Direct computation at a single frequency

5.3 Discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and fast Fourier

5.3.1 Plotting spectra for ω in [0,ωs/2]

5.3.2 Plotting spectra for ω in [−ωs/2,ωs/2)

5.4 Magnitude spectra of measured data

5.5 FFT-computed magnitude spectra of ﬁnite-duration

5.5.2 Padding with trailing zeros

5.7. DO FREQUENCY SPECTRA PLAY ANY ROLE IN REAL-TIME PROCESSING?117

5.7.1 Spectrogram

Systems – Memoryless

6.1 Introduction

6.2 A study of CT systems

6.2.1 What role do signals play in designing systems?

6.3 Systems modeled as black box

6.4 Causality, time-invariance, and initial relaxedness

6.4.1 DT systems

6.5 Linear time-invariant (LTI) memoryless systems

6.6 Op amps as nonlinear memoryless elements

6.7 Op amps as LTI memoryless elements

6.7.2 Limitation of memoryless model

6.8 Ideal op amps

6.9 Concluding remarks

7.2 Causal systems with memory

7.2.1 Forced response, initial conditions, and natural response

7.3 Linear time-invariant (LTI) systems

7.3.1 Finite and inﬁnite impulse responses (FIR and IIR)

7.3.2 Discrete convolution

7.4 Some diﬀerence equations

7.4.1 Comparison of convolutions and diﬀerence equations

7.5 DT LTI basic elements and basic block diagrams

7.6 State-space (ss) equations

7.6.1 Computer computation and real-time processing using ss equa-
tions

7.7 Transfer functions – z-transform

7.7.1 Transfer functions of unit-delay and unit-advance elements

7.8 Composite systems: Transform domain or time do-

7.9 Concluding remarks

CT LTI and lumped systems

8.1 Introduction

8.1.1 Forced response and natural response

8.2 Linear time-invariant (LTI) systems

8.2.1 Integral convolution

8.3 Modeling LTI systems

8.4 State-space (ss) equations

8.4.1 Signiﬁcance of states

8.4.2 Computer computation of ss equations

8.4.3 Why we downplay convolutions

8.4.4 Any need to study high-order diﬀerential equations?

8.5 CT LTI basic elements

8.5.2 Diﬀerentiators

8.6.1 Transfer functions of diﬀerentiators and integrators

8.7 Transfer functions of RLC circuits

8.7.1 Rational transfer functions and diﬀerential equations

8.7.2 Proper rational transfer functions

8.8 Lumped or distributed

8.8.1 Why we do not study CT FIR systems

8.9 Realizations

8.9.1 From ss equations to transfer functions

8.9.2 Initial conditions

8.10 The degree of rational functions – Coprimeness

8.11 Do transfer functions describe systems fully?

8.11.1 Complete characterization

8.11.2 Equivalence of ss equations and transfer functions

8.12 Concluding remarks

9.1.1 Design criteria – time domain

9.2 Poles and zeros

9.3 Some Laplace transform pairs

9.3.2 Reasons for not using transfer functions in computing responses

9.4 Step responses – Roles of poles and zeros

9.4.1 Responses of poles as t→∞

9.5 Stability

9.5.1 What holds for lumped systems may not hold for distributed
systems

9.6 Steady-state and transient responses

9.6.1 Time constant and Response time of stable systems

9.7 Frequency responses

9.7.3 Non-uniqueness in design

9.7.5 Identiﬁcation by measuring frequency responses

9.7.6 Parametric identiﬁcation

9.9. FREQUENCY RESPONSES AND FREQUENCY SPECTRA 247

9.9 Frequency responses and frequency spectra

9.9.2 Resonance – Time domain and frequency domain

9.10.1 A brief history

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Op-amp circuits based on a single-pole model

10.2.1 Model reduction – Operational frequency range

10.3 Seismometers

10.4 Composite systems – Loading problem

10.4.1 Complete characterization

10.4.2 Necessity of feedback

10.4.3 Advantage of feedback

10.5. DESIGN OF CONTROL SYSTEMS – POLE PLACEMENT 275

10.5 Design of control systems – Pole placement

10.5.1 Is the design unique?

10.6 Inverse systems

10.8 Feedback model of general op-amp circuit

10.8.1 Feedback model of Wien-bridge oscillator

DT LTI and lumped systems

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Some z-Transform pairs

11.3. DT LTI LUMPED SYSTEMS – PROPER RATIONAL FUNCTIONS 291

11.3 DT LTI lumped systems – proper rational functions

11.3.1 Rational transfer functions and Diﬀerence equations

11.3.2 Poles and zeros

11.4 Inverse z-transform

11.4.1 Step responses – Roles of poles and zeros

11.4.2 s-plane and z-plane

11.4.3 Responses of Poles as n→∞

11.5.1 What holds for lumped systems may not hold for distributed
systems

11.5.2 The Jury test

11.6.1 Time constant and response time of stable systems

11.7 Frequency Responses

11.8. FREQUENCY RESPONSES AND FREQUENCY SPECTRA 313

11.8 Frequency responses and frequency spectra

11.9 Realizations – State-space equations

11.9.1 Basic block diagrams

11.10 Digital processing of CT signals

11.10.1 Filtering the sound of a piano’s middle C

References

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