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Networking Concepts - Key Concepts of Domain Name System (DNS)

Networking Concepts - Key Concepts of Domain Name System (DNS)

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Published by: api-3780913 on Oct 16, 2008
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Key Concepts of DNS
1
Key Concepts of DNS

When you implement Domain Name System (DNS) on your network, there are
several steps involved in configuring a DNS name server. These steps can
include:

\ue001
Configuring a root DNS name server. When the DNS Server service is
installed, the Cache.dns file is created and stored in
systemroot\System32\DNS on a DNS name server. This file contains the

Internet Protocol (IP) address of the root-level DNS name servers for the
Internet. When an iterative query is performed, the DNS name server
contacts one of the root-level DNS name servers. If the DNS name server is
operating behind a proxy server or on an intranet, it must be configured as
the root-level DNS name server for the internal network.

\ue001
Creating a subdomain in an existing zone. For large networks, you may

want to distribute the administrative workload and the query workload
among multiple DNS name servers. To do this, you create subdomains and
delegate authority to the DNS name servers for those subdomains.

\ue001
Creating a zone database file. The information that is used to perform name

resolution is stored in a zone database file. Zone database files are used to
resolve, or translate, a host name to an IP address, or to resolve IP addresses
to host names. The entries that are used to perform the different types of
name resolution are stored in two different types of zone database files:
forward lookup zone database files and reverse lookup zone database files.
The entries that are stored in a database file are called resource records.

\ue001
Configuring standard zones. After the DNS Server service is installed, you

can create a standard primary or standard secondary zone. The type of zone
that you create determines whether a DNS name server is a primary or
secondary DNS name server for a zone database file. Multiple copies of a
zone database file can be placed on multiple DNS name servers to provide
redundancy and to distribute workload. The primary DNS name server
maintains a zone database file and the secondary DNS name server receives
a copy of a zone database file.

After you create either a primary or a secondary zone, you select whether
the zone will be used for forward or reverse lookups. Forward lookup zones
are used to resolve host names to IP addresses, and reverse lookup zones are
used to resolve IP addresses to host names.

To distribute the workload of updating secondary DNS name servers, a
secondary DNS name server can be configured to receive updates to the
zone database file from either a primary or secondary DNS name server.
The server that provides the updated information to the secondary DNS
name server is called a master server. A single DNS name server can be
configured to act as a primary DNS name server for one zone, a secondary
DNS name server for a different zone, and a master server for any zone.

2
Key Concepts of DNS\ue001
Configuring a caching-only server. The DNS Server service can be installed

on a DNS name server without creating a zone database file, which limits
the amount of traffic over a network that is generated to update zone
database files. This type of DNS name server is called a caching-only
server. The caching-only server can be configured to perform recursive
queries and store name resolution information in its cache, which is then
used to help resolve queries from DNS clients. The amount of traffic over a
network is reduced because both the client and the caching-only server
perform recursive queries.

\ue001
Configuring DNS clients. Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol

(TCP/IP) properties on a client computer must be configured to enable
queries to a specific DNS name server. Unlike the iterative query that a
DNS name server performs, the client computer performs a recursive query
to the DNS name server that is specified in the TCP/IP properties of the
client computer.

Key Concepts of DNS
3
Configuring a Root DNS Name Server
\u201c .\u201d
\u201c .\u201d
org.
com.
edu.
au.
org.
com.
edu.
au.
Root Name Server
com.
com.
org.
org.
...
contoso.
...
...
contoso.
...
contoso.com.
edu.
edu.
\ue001Configure a Root Name Server When
\ue000Your intranet will not be connected to the Internet
\ue000You are using a proxy service to gain access to the Internet

The root DNS name server contains the resource records for all of the top-level
DNS name servers in the domain namespace (for example, the com domain).
The top-level DNS name servers contain the resource records for the second-
level DNS name servers (for example, the contoso.com domain). It is necessary
for you to configure a root DNS name server if:

\ue001
Your intranet will not be connected to the Internet. Therefore, the root-level
domain is for the intranet only.
\ue001

You are using a proxy service to gain access to the Internet. Create the root
of your local DNS namespace, and the proxy service will perform the
necessary translations and connections for Internet access.

The root DNS name servers on the Internet are listed in the Cache.dns
file on the root DNS name server that you configure.
Note

There are two methods available for configuring the root DNS name server.
When you open the DNS console for the first time, the DNS Server
Configuration wizard will prompt you to configure the server as a root DNS
name server, and it will guide you through the process of configuring a DNS
name server.

After initial configuration of a DNS name server, you can change the server to a
root DNS name server (that will be the root of the tree for the Internet) by
creating a new standard primary forward lookup zone that is represented by a
period (.).

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Deepak Perinje added this note
Very Informative .. Thanks a lot for upload
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