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ETP MANUAL STDporty hoby

ETP MANUAL STDporty hoby



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Published by: api-27596299 on Oct 16, 2008
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(Capacity = 30 M3/Hr.)
Aquatech Engineering Services Limited
Biochemical Oxygen demand (BOD): The strength of the wastewater is often determined by
measuring the amount of oxygen consumed by microorganism like bacteria in biodegrading the
organic matter. The measurement is known as the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD).

Microorganisms such as bacteria are responsible for decomposing organic waste. When organic matter such as dead plants, leaves, grass clippings, cellulose components, manure, sewage, organic waste like dyes, fats and oils, or even food waste is present in a water supply, the bacteria will begin the process of breaking down this waste. When this happens, bacteria in aerobic process, robbing other aquatic organisms of the oxygen they need to live, consume much of the available dissolved oxygen.

If there is a large quantity of organic waste in the water supply, there will also be a lot of bacteria present working to decompose this waste. In this case, the demand for oxygen will be high (due to all the bacteria) so the BOD level will be high. As the waste is consumed or dispersed through the water, BOD levels will begin to decline.

Nitrogen and phosphates in a body of water can also contribute to high BOD levels. Nitrates and phosphates are plant nutrients and can cause plant life and algae to grow quickly. When plants grow quickly, they also die quickly. This contributes to the organic waste in the water, which is then decomposed by bacteria. This results in a high BOD level. The temperature of the water can also contribute to high BOD levels. For example, warmer water usually will have a higher BOD level than colder water. As water temperature increases, the rate of photosynthesis by algae and other plant life in the water also increases. When this happens, plants grow faster and also die faster. When the plants die, they fall to the bottom where they are decomposed by bacteria. The bacteria require oxygen for this process so the BOD is high at this location. Therefore, increased water temperatures will speed up bacterial decomposition and result in higher BOD levels.

When BOD levels are high, dissolved oxygen (DO) levels decrease because the bacteria are consuming the oxygen that is available in the water. Since less dissolved oxygen is available in the water, fish and other aquatic organisms may not survive. Textile mill wastewater possesses a very high BOD like 400 \u2013 600 mg/l. It is necessary to reduce this BOD value up to a level less than 30 mg/l before discharging them into the environment like canals or rivers. If a water body of high BOD is discharged into the sea or very large river then off course the concentration of BOD decreases due to dilution and have little or no harmful effect on the aquatic life or environment. Therefore if it is possible to discharge a highly toxic effluent in sea or large river no treatment is necessary.

Though it was not mentioned, the dissolved oxygen (DO) is a highly significant parameter to define the BOD or COD of a wastewater. The amount of oxygen present in a certain amount of water in dissolved state is known as DO. It is normally expressed as mg/l. Water may contain DO ranging from 0 to 18 mg/l but in most cases of normal waters, DO lies between 7-9 mg/l. Aquatic lives require certain level of DO to survive in the water. In case of wastewater the microorganisms require oxygen to consume the organic wastes. As a result the DO of water decreases tremendously and becomes a threat to the life of aquatic species. Textile effluents possess very low

Aquatech Engineering Services Limited

DO, which is unsuitable for discharging to the environment. During treatment of wastewater air is blown through the effluent when oxygen is dissolved in the effluent as a result DO level raises and as the DO increases the BOD/COD decreases.

Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD): This is a means of measuring the ability of wastewater to

sustain aquatic life, essential for the preservation of the environment. It also enables proper assessment of treatment plant performance. Aquatic organisms and animals require dissolved oxygen to flourish. The Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) test gives an indication of the impact of discharge waters on aquatic life by measuring the oxygen depleting nature of the discharge water.

COD is based on the fact that nearly all-organic compounds can be fully oxidized to carbon dioxide with a strong oxidizing agent under acidic condition. COD is another common measure of water-borne organic substances \u2014 the process of measuring COD causes the conversion of all organic matter into carbon dioxide. For this reason, one limitation of COD is that it cannot differentiate between biologically active and those which biologically inactive. One major advantage of COD over BOD is that COD can be measured in just three hours where as BOD measurement takes at least five days. The value of COD is always higher than BOD, this is because BOD accounts for only biodegradable organic compounds while COD accounts for all organic compounds e.g. biodegradable as well as no biodegradable but chemically oxidisable.

Total suspended Solids (TSS): TSS is mainly organic in nature, are visible and can be removed

from the wastewater by physical/ mechanical means e.g. screening and sedimentation. TSS is measured by filtering a certain quantity of effluent and then drying the filtrate at certain temperature e.g. 1050C followed by weighing. TSS is expressed as parts per million or in milligram/litre. The pore size of the filter paper is very important in estimating the TSS, the nominal pore size 1.58 micro metre.

Total Dissolved Solids (TDS): TDS are the solids that are actually in solution, similar for

example to mix sugar into hot coffee. Dissolved solids generally pass through the system unaffected. TDS is the sum total of all of the dissolved things in a given body of water. It is everything in the water that's not actually water. It includes hardness, alkalinity, cyanuric acid, chlorides, bromides, sulfates, silicates, and all manner of organic compounds. Every time we add anything to the water, we are increasing its TDS. This includes not only sanitizing and pH adjusting chemicals, but also conditioner, algaecides, and tile and surface cleaners. TDS also includes airborne pollutants and bather waste as well as dissolved minerals in the fill water. TDS is referred to as the total amount of mobile charged ions, including minerals, salts or metals dissolved in a given volume of water, and is expressed in units of mg per unit volume of water (mg/L), or as parts per million (ppm).

Where do Dissolved Solids come from?

Some dissolved solids come from organic sources such as leaves, silt, plankton, and dyes and chemicals used in processing, sewage. Other sources come from runoff from urban areas, road salts used on street during the winter, and fertilizers and pesticides used on lawns and farms.


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