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Acids and Bases (Summary)

Acids and Bases (Summary)

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chemistry
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Module 1 Paper 3 – Acids and Bases ________________________________________________________________________ 
 
General Characteristics of Acids and Bases
Learning Goal 1List the characteristics of acidic and basic solutions, and identify the ions responsiblefor these properties
.Acids are generally a class of substances that taste sour, such as vinegar, which is a dilutesolution of acetic acid. Bases, or alkaline substances, are characterized by their bitter tasteand slippery feel. The first precise definition of an an acid and base was given by SvanteArrhenius, and is referred to as Arrhenius Theory.
The Proton in Water: Arrhenius Theory
Swedish chemist Arrhenius defined an acid as a substance that ionizes in water to givehydrogen ions, and a base as a substance that ionizes in water to give hydroxide ions.Hydrochloric acid, HCl, is a strong acid, and is very soluble in water. It dissociates intoits component ions in the following manner:HCl (g) H
+
(aq) + Cl
-
(aq)The hydrogen ion interacts strongly with a lone pair of electrons on the oxygen of a water molecule. The resulting ion, H
3
O
+
is called the hydronium ion.
 ACIDIC 
solutions are formed when an acid transfers a proton to water.
The reaction of HCl with water can be written in either of the following ways:HCl (aq) + H
2
O (l) H
3
O
+
(aq) + Cl
-
(aq)HCl (aq) H
+
(aq) + Cl
-
(aq) _____________________________________________________________________ 1
 
Module 1 Paper 3 – Acids and Bases ________________________________________________________________________ 
The Brønsted-Lowry Concept of Acids and Bases
Learning Goal 2Define Brønsted acid and Brønsted base and conjugate acid-base pair. Identify theconjugate base associated with a Brønsted acid, and the conjugate acid associatedwith a given Brønsted base.
 Acids are substances that are capable of donating a proton, and bases are substancescapable of accepting a proton.
So, in the example above, HCl acts as a Brønsted Acid by donating a proton in water, andwater in turn acts as a Brønsted Base by accepting a proton from HCl.Water can act as anacid or a base. Here is another example: NH
3
(aq) + H
2
O(l) NH
4+
(aq) + OH
-
(aq)Here, H
2
O acts as a Brønsted acid by donating a proton to NH
3
which acts as a Brønsted base.Using the Arrhenius definition, we say that the resulting solution is basic because itcontains OH
-
ions, thus we say that the NH
3
molecule is basic (a proton acceptor).
 All Arrhenius acids are also Brønsted acids. All Arrhenius bases are also Brønsted bases.
Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs
Let's look at the reaction of NH
3
and H
2
O again:(1) NH
3
+ H
2
O NH
4+
+ OH
-
The reverse of this reaction is:(2) NH
4
+ OH
-
NH
3
+ H
2
OIn this case, NH
4+
acts as an acid which donates a proton to OH
-
. OH
-
acts as a base.An acid and a base that are related by the gain and loss of a proton are called a
conjugateacid-base pair
. For example, NH
4+
is the conjugate acid of NH
3
, and NH
3
is theconjugate base of NH
4+
.Every acid has associated with it a conjugate base.Likewise, every base has associated with it a conjugate acid. _____________________________________________________________________ 2
 
Module 1 Paper 3 – Acids and Bases ________________________________________________________________________ 
 
 Acids and bases can be either neutral or charged species: H 
2
O (acid or base, neutral),O
2-
(base, charged), C 
2
 H 
3
O
2-
(acid, charged)
For any reaction:HA + H
2
O H
3
O
+
+ A
-
If HA is a strong acid because it gives up its proton readily, then A
-
is a weak base because it has little affinity for the proton.If HA is a weak acid because it donates very few protons to the water, then A
-
has a highaffinity for a proton, and A
-
is a stronger base than water.
The Dissociation of Water
Learning Goal 3Explain what is meant by the autoionization of water, and write the ion-product-constant expression for this process.
H
2
O can act as both a proton donor and acceptor for itself. A proton can be transferredfrom one water molecule to another, resulting in the formation of one hyroxide ion (OH
-
)and one hydronium ion (H
3
O
+
).2H
2
O(l) H
3
O
+
(aq) + OH
-
(aq)This is called the
autoionization
or 
dissociation
of water. This equilibrium can also beexpressed as:H
2
O(l) H
+
(aq) + OH
-
(aq)In the above equilibrium, water acts as both an acid and a base. The ability of a species toact as either an acid or a base is known as
amphoterism
. _____________________________________________________________________ 3

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