iCopyright C 1994, 1997 by Joel A. ShapiroAll rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by anymeans, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise, without theprior written permission of the author.This is a preliminary version of the book, not to be considered afully published edition. While some of the material, particularly theﬁrst four chapters, is close to readiness for a ﬁrst edition, chapters 6and 7 need more work, and chapter 8 is incomplete. The appendicesare random selections not yet reorganized. There are also as yet fewexercises for the later chapters. The ﬁrst edition will have an adequateset of exercises for each chapter.The author welcomes corrections, comments, and criticism.