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Agriculture Long Notes

Agriculture Long Notes

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Published by Heba Khan

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Published by: Heba Khan on Oct 20, 2011
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Some irrigation methods
Irrigation is the the controlled application of water for agricultural purposes throughmanmade systems to supply water requirements not satisfied by rainfall. Crop irrigation isvital throughout the world in order to provide the world's ever-growing populations withenough food. Many different irrigation methods are used worldwide, including:
Center-Pivot:
Automated sprinkler irrigation achieved by automatically rotating the sprinkler pipe or boom, supplying water to the sprinkler heads or nozzles, as a radius from the center of the field to be irrigated. Water is delivered to the center or pivot point of the system. Thepipe is supported above the crop by towers at fixed spacings and propelled by pneumatic,mechanical, hydraulic, or electric power on wheels or skids in fixed circular paths at uniformangular speeds. Water is applied at a uniform rate by progressive increase of nozzle sizefrom the pivot to the end of the line. The depth of water applied is determined by the rate of travel of the system. Single units are ordinarily about 1,250 to 1,300 feet long and irrigateabout a 130-acre circular area.
Drip:
A planned irrigation system in which water is applied directly to the Root Zone of plantsby means of applicators (orifices, emitters, porous tubing, perforated pipe, etc.) operatedunder low pressure with the applicators being placed either on or below the surface of theground.
Flood:
The application of irrigation water where the entire surface of the soil is covered byponded water.
Furrow:
A partial surface flooding method of irrigation normally used with clean-tilled cropswhere water is applied in furrows or rows of sufficient capacity to contain the designedirrigation system.
Gravity:
Irrigation in which the water is not pumped but flows and is distributed by gravity.
Rotation:
A system by which irrigators receive an allotted quantity of water, not a continuousrate, but at stated intervals.
Sprinkler:
A planned irrigation system in which water is applied by means of perforatedpipes or nozzles operated under pressure so as to form a spray pattern.
Subirrigation:
Applying irrigation water below the ground surface either by raising the water table within or near the root zone or by using a buried perforated or porous pipe system thatdischarges directly into the root zone.
Traveling Gun:
Sprinkler irrigation system consisting of a single large nozzle that rotatesand is self-propelled. The name refers to the fact that the base is on wheels and can bemoved by the irrigator or affixed to a guide wire.
Supplemental:
Irrigation to ensure increased crop production in areas where rainfallnormally supplies most of the moisture needed.
Surface
: Irrigation where the soil surface is used as a conduit, as in furrow and border irrigation as opposed to sprinkler irrigation or subirrigation.
 
Resistance development in pests
How does resistance develop?
Certain individuals within a pest population may already possess genetically-determinedresistance to a particular active substance – even before it has been applied. Individualspossessing genes for resistance might normally only be present as a small proportion of thepopulation, but when an insecticide is applied, the selection pressure in favour of theresistance they possess increases. Resistance will then spread quickly within thepopulation,particularly if the organism has a rapid turnover of generations and reproducesitself in large numbers.Examples of pests with a strong ability to develop insecticide resistance are aphids, whiteflies, mites, and various lepidopteran species, including the genera Spodoptera, Heliothisand Plutella. These pests possess the biological characteristics described above: theyproduce several generations a year, and show a very high reproduction rate. This allowsgenetic selection and adaptation to changes in external factors to happen particularly quicklyin these types of insect.The development of resistance is often associated with reduced biological fitness in theabsence of the factor selecting for that resistance; so if the insecticide is no longer used, thefrequency of resistance within the population usually declines. But it may remain latent, suchthat it can reemerge if selection pressure increases again, should the insecticide enter intoregular use once more.Reduced activity, or indeed complete loss of activity of insecticides, can occur as the resultof a selection process acting over several generations of insect pest.
Resistance can take various forms:Metabolic resistance -
The resistant pest can degrade the active substance before it has achance to express its toxicity.
 
Target-Resistance-
The site of action of the active substance –i.e. the molecular target in thepest – has changed so much that the active substance is no longer effective.
Resistance to penetration
-The resistant pest takes up the active substance more slowlyand/or in lower quantities than the normal, sensitive pest.
Behavioural resistance-
The resistant pest avoids contact with the active substance. Thisleads to reduced uptake of the insecticide, and therefore,reduced activity.Quite often, resistance is not the result of a single mechanism, but of the interaction betweentwo or more mechanisms.
Which factors favour the development and expression of resistance?
The ability to develop resistance depends strongly on the biology of a particularspecies(generation frequency, reproduction rate, genetic variability). But pest biology is only onefactor influencing resistance development. Not using pesticides according to themanufacturer’s recommendations can also encourage the development of resistance.Wherever a pest species develops resistance to a particular active substance, it is usuallyalso resistant to other active substances with the same mode of action. This means thatcrops can no longer be protected against pest attack using products based on this particular chemical class.As many pests are not restricted to a single crop, and because crop protection agents maybe used in different crops against the same pests, predictions of the risk of resistancedeveloping should consider the entire spectrum of crops attacked by a particular pest withina region – this determines how often and how intensively a pest species is exposed to aparticular active substance.Isolated pest populations – for example those found in association with large-scaleglasshouse growing – represent a particularly strong risk of resistance development.
How can the risk of resistance development be reduced?
The activity of a product can only be guaranteed when:1. the product is only applied at the recommended rate, with the right timing, and withappropriate application equipment;2. no more than the maximum permissible number of applications is made;3. beneficial insects are protected, according to the spirit of integrated agriculture;4. agronomic activities (removal of harvest residues, avoiding monocultures and shortrotations) are performed as part of an ’Integrated Crop Management’approach.Treating with reduced application rates can jeopardize the chances of successful control,especially where infestation pressure is high; it also increases the risk of resistancedevelopment. The recommended application rates should also be kept to,even whenproducts are mixed. In fact,combining products or alternating with active substances fromdifferent chemical classes can bring about a higher level of activity, completing the spectrumof action, and reducing the risk of resistance development. Detailed information about thecorrect use of a crop protection agent is provided in the instructions for use that accompanyevery packaged product.Resistance development in pests is a complex process. Nevertheless, it is important toremember that resistance can spread rapidly within a pest population. Therefore,all of the

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