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Table Of Contents

BOX 1A UNANTICIPATED EFFECTS OF CHEMICALS IN THE ENVIRONMENT
Conceptual framework for environmental policy26
EVALUATING THE RISKS FROM CHEMICALS
BOX 2A THE FOUR ELEMENTS OF CURRENT RISK ASSESSMENT
The nature of chemicals
BOX 2B THE NATURE OF CHEMICALS
Direct adverse effects of chemicals
Indirect adverse effects of chemicals
BOX 2C CHEMICALS THAT CAN BE TOXIC IN THE FOOD MATRIX
Testing strategies
Uncertainty in toxicity testing
Subdivision of the normal 100-fold default uncertainty factors26
Uncertainty in ecotoxicity testing
The need for a better approach
Sources of chemicals
Pathways through the environment
Exposure to chemicals: environmental pathways44
A new approach to exposure assessments
End-points needed and application factors used to derive a PNEC51
Current environmental monitoring programmes
Limitations of environmental monitoring
Biologically active chemicals in the environment
BOX 2E MULTIPLE CHEMICAL SENSITIVITY (MCS) SYNDROME
Linking effects to exposure
BOX 2F THE SUREMILK PROJECT 106
Animal testing under REACH
New chemicals under REACH
Responses to the White Paper
Regulations governing products other than industrial chemicals
Prior Informed Consent (PIC) Convention
Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) Convention
Other UNEP instruments
UK National Strategy
Chemicals Stakeholder Forum
Implementation and enforcement in the UK
BOX 3A SWEDISH CHEMICAL PRODUCTS REGISTER
BOX 3B SOMS QUICK SCAN
BOX 3C US EPA PRE-MANUFACTURING SCREENING60
Comparison of the notification procedures for chemical substances65
Testing methodologies
Testing costs for notification in the EU69
Testing costs for notification in Japan70
Integrated Product Policy
Product liability – from fault to defect
State of the art defence
Compliance with regulatory requirements
Causation and risk exposure
Liability for environmental damage
Confidence in Chemicals
The Copenhagen Chemicals Charter
INFORMING DECISIONS:A BETTER APPROACH TO CHEMICALS MANAGEMENT
RCEP proposals for managing the risks from existing chemicals in products
BOX 4A TOXICOKINETIC MODELLING
Analytical techniques
Monitoring the effects of chemicals on non-human biota
Toxicity Identification Evaluation
Utilising ad hoc observations
Exposure data and biomarkers in humans
Reconnaissance monitoring
Environmental epidemiology
Effective use of monitoring data
TOWARDS ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTS
BOX 5B EXAMPLES OF PROBLEMATIC SUBSTITUTION
BOX 5C OTHER VIEWS ON SUBSTITUTION
BOX 5D THE PAN UK DOMESTIC PESTICIDE USE SURVEY
Heavy metals in products and point source emissions, Sweden, ca.1990
The complexity of chemical supply chains: Rhodamine B
Green chemistry awards
BOX 5F NORWEGIAN SOLVENTS TAX52
Figure 5-II New substance notifications in the EU and US since 199477
Reasons for unfavourable public impressions of the chemicals industry82
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
RECOMMENDATIONS
REFERENCES
ANNOUNCEMENT OF THE STUDY AND INVITATION TO SUBMIT EVIDENCE
CONDUCT OF THE STUDY
EUROPEAN UNION TESTING REQUIREMENTS FOR CHEMICALS
MONITORING THE EFFECTS OF CHEMICALS ON THE ENVIRONMENT
BOX E1 BIOMARKERS
International agreements on air pollutants25
BOX E2 METABOLISM OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS
BOX E3 SAMPLING
FURTHER INTERNATIONAL CHEMICALS PROGRAMMES
HAZARDOUS WASTE CLASSIFICATION
GENOMICS
BOX H1 MICRO-ARRAYS
COMPARISON OF ROYAL COMMISSION’S PROPOSALS WITH OTHER SCHEMES
COMPUTATIONAL APPROACHES TO THE SAFETY ASSESSMENT OF PHARMACEUTICALS
MEMBERS OF THE ROYAL COMMISSION
INDEX
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Chemicals in Products

Chemicals in Products

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Published by Amparo Guevara

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Published by: Amparo Guevara on Oct 20, 2011
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