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SAPPMA Technical Manual 2011

SAPPMA Technical Manual 2011

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Published by Ankit Prajapati
For those who want to make their career in plastic manufacturing world
For those who want to make their career in plastic manufacturing world

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Published by: Ankit Prajapati on Oct 21, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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1
SAPPMA TECHNICAL MANUAL | jANUAry 2011 | 3d Edition
SOUTHERN AFRICAN PLASTIC PIPEMANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION
Copight Potected
 
INTRODUCTION BY THE CEO OFSAPPMA
You are now reading the third edition of the SAPPMA
Technical Pipe Manual. Since the first edition saw the
light in 2006, we have continually updated, amended
and added to the publication. This edition now includesfor the first time, sections on Hot & Cold WaterPlumbing Pipe, HDPE fabricated fittings, as well as the
jointing of HDPE.
An enormous amount of data could be included in amanual such as this, but for practical and financialreasons we limit it to the most important/relevant inforequired by a design engineer. I therefore repeat thestanding invitation to users of this book, to send usyour constructive comments for future improvements.Pipelines are one of the three most important elementsof a country’s infrastructure. The disruption of watersupply and sewage disposal is a most unpleasantexperience - something that could be avoided byreliable piping systems. The key elements in achieving
reliability are:
o Knowledgeable civil engineering design (hydraulics,soil conditions)o Selection of the right pipe material (plastic, steel,concrete, etc.) for the applicationo Using the best available pipe grade polymero Pipe manufacturing of the highest standard inapproved factorieso Installation by skilled and responsible contractorsWhen done correctly, there is no reason why plasticpipelines should not give reliable service for a hundredyears or more!We trust this manual will enable you to make informedchoices in terms of the above and that your experienceswith the plastics pipe industry will always be pleasantand constructive.
Jan Venter
(Pr Eng)
SAPPMA’s role
The role and importance of SAPPMA can hardly
be overestimated. With big and ever increasingdemand for water and sewage systems, a seriousshortage of water in the country and the needfor reliable, leak-free, long term piping systems,the critical importance of products of the highestquality is a clear. This is an area where SAPPMAplays a key role, together with the SABS.The natural tendency of people is to follow theway of least resistance; this is evident in all areasof society. In the piping industry, it is far easierand a lot more profitable to use the cheapest rawmaterial available and to overlook some criticallong test requirements. Experience has shownthat even the SABS mark on the product is notnecessarily a watertight guarantee.SAPPMA continuously introduce additionalmeasures to its members over and abovethe requirements of the national standards.Members are also subjected to regular factoryaudits. It is a matter of pride to use the SAPPMAlogo on your products.
Pupose
Our purpose is to create absolute consumerconfidence within the Plastic Pipe Industry andto ensure the long term health & sustainability ofhigh quality plastic pipes and pipe systems.
INTRODUCTION
SAPPMA TECHNICAL MANUAL | jANUAry 2011 | 3d Edition
 
PART I GENERAL ............................................................................................................. 3INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................. 4
Purpose and Scope of Manual
......................................................................................... 4
Plastic Pipe Applications
............................................................................................... 4
Pipe Material Properties
............................................................................................... 4
International Market
.................................................................................................... 6
South African Market
................................................................................................... 6
Pipeline Design and Selection
......................................................................................... 8
Gravity and Pressure Systems
......................................................................................... 8PIPE MATERIAL CLASSIFICATION ......................................................................................... 10
Soil Structure Systems
................................................................................................. 10
Flexible and Rigid Pipes
............................................................................................... 11
Classification of Plastics
.............................................................................................. 13
Comparison of Various Flexible Pipes
............................................................................... 13
Regression Curves (stress/time relationship)
...................................................................... 15PART II SELECTION AND INSTALLATION .................................................................................. 19HYDRAULIC REQUIREMENTS............................................................................................... 20
Basic Principles
......................................................................................................... 20
Operating Pressure, Hoop Stress and Wall Thickness
............................................................. 23Surge and Fatigue ...................................................................................................... 24
Factory Tests
............................................................................................................ 25EXTERNAL LOADS ........................................................................................................... 26 
Design Basis
............................................................................................................. 26
Load Classification
..................................................................................................... 26
Pipe Stiffness
........................................................................................................... 27
Determining Required Pipe Stiffness
................................................................................ 28
Vertical Deflection
..................................................................................................... 30
DURABILITY REQUIREMENTS
.............................................................................................. 31Durability ................................................................................................................ 31SYSTEM COMPONENTS ..................................................................................................... 31
Secondary loads
........................................................................................................ 31
Manholes
................................................................................................................ 31
Joints And Fittings
..................................................................................................... 31
Valves
.................................................................................................................... 32INSTALLATION ............................................................................................................... 32
Preconstruction Activities
............................................................................................. 32Excavation .............................................................................................................. 32Embedment ............................................................................................................. 33Pipe Laying and Jointing .............................................................................................. 33
Backfilling
............................................................................................................... 34Anchoring ................................................................................................................ 35
Site Tests
................................................................................................................ 35
TABLE OF CONTENTS
SAPPMA TECHNICAL MANUAL | jANUAry 2011 | 3d Edition
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