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Production Process

Production Process

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Published by ASHWINI SINHA
Production Process
Factors influencing production process decisions • Types of production processes • Job process * Batch process
Production Process
Factors influencing production process decisions • Types of production processes • Job process * Batch process

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Published by: ASHWINI SINHA on Oct 21, 2011
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10/21/2011

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Product and process design
Process design
Learning Objectives
After reading this lesson you will be able to understand
Factors influencing process decisions
 Types of processes
Modern production technologies
After products and services design comes
process design
. To make products or provide services, a process is a prerequisite.
Process decisions must be made when
A new or substantially modified product or service is being offered
Quality must be improved
Competitive priorities have changed
Demand for a product or service is changing
Current performance is inadequate
The cost or availability of inputs has changed
Competitors are gaining by using a new process; or 
 New technologies are availableProcess decisions directly affect the process itself, and indirectly the productsand services that it provides. In general, Operations managers must consider five common process decisions. These are:
1.
Process choice
-
 
whether resources are organized around products or  processes. It depends on volume and degree of customization to be provided
2
. Vertical integration
 
 – 
backward integration, and forward integration
3. Resource flexibility
 – ease with which employees and equipmentcan handle a wide variety of products, output levels, duties, and functions
4. Customer involvement5. Capital intensity
 – mix of equipment and human skills in a process
1
 
A common classification of production processstructures
We often classify processes based on their physical configuration, material and product flow, flexibility, and volume expectation.There are five different process types, which a manager can choose, keeping inmind the relative importance of the following attributes:-Quality, Time, Flexibility, and Cost.These are:1. Project process2. Job process3. Batch process4. Line process, and5. Continuous processFigure 4.7 shows that these types of processes are found in manufacturingand services organizations alike. In fact, some manufacturer’s processes provide a service and do not involve manufacturing, as demonstrated with project process examples.A high degree of job customization, the large scope of each project, andthe release of substantial resources characterize a
project process
.Let’s now focus on the various constituents.
 Job process
A
 job process
creates the flexibility needed to produce a variety of  products or services in significant quantities. Customization is relativelyhigh and volume for any one product or service is low. A job process primarily organizes all like resources around itself; equipment and workerscapable of certain types of work are located together. These resources process all jobs requiring that type of work. This process choice creates jumbled flows through the operations as customization is high and most jobshave a different sequence of processing steps.
Batch process
A
batch process
(
disconnected flow processes
) differsfrom the job process with respect to volume, variety, and quantity. The primary difference is that volumes are higher because the same or similar  products or services are provided repeatedly. Another difference is that anarrower range of products and services is provided.
2
 
 
Figure 4.7
Processes at manufacturing organizations
Line process
A
line process
(
repetitive or discrete flow process
)lies between the batch and continuous processes on the continuum; volumesare high, and products or services are standardized, which allows resourcesto be organized around a product or service. There are line flows, with littleinventory held between operations. Each operation performs the same process over and over, with little variability in the products or services provided.
Continuous process
A
continuous process
is the extreme end of high-volume,standardized production with rigid line flows. Its name derives from the waymaterials move through the process. Usually, the primary material, such asliquid, gas, or powder, moves without stopping through the facility. The
3
Project processSelecting locationFor new plantJob processMatching precisionMetal tubesBatch processProducing a batchof text-booksLine processAuto assemblyContinuousprocess – oilrefining process

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