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Table Of Contents

2.1 Modelling for short-circuit current calculations
2.2 Methods for calculating short-circuit currents
2.2.1 Importance and construction of sequence networks
3.1.2 Incoming signal
3.1.3 Function
3.1.4 International identification of electrical devices
3.2 Electromechanical relays
3.2.1 Attraction relays
3.2.2 Relays with moveable coils
3.2.3 Induction relays
3.3 Evolution of protection relays
3.4 Numerical protection
3.4.1 General
3.4.2 Characteristics of numerical relays
3.4.3 Typical architectures of numerical relays
3.4.4 Standard functions of numerical relays
3.5 Supplies to the relay circuits
Current and voltage transformers
4.1 Voltage transformers
4.1.1 Equivalent circuit
4.1.2 Errors
4.1.3 Burden
4.1.4 Selection of VTs
4.1.5 Capacitor voltage transformers
4.2 Current transformers
4.2.1 Equivalent circuit
4.2.2 Errors
4.2.3 AC saturation
4.2.4 Burden
4.2.5 Selection of CTs
4.2.6 DC saturation
4.2.7 Precautions when working with CTs
Overcurrent protection
5.1 General
5.2 Types of overcurrent relay
5.2.1 Definite-current relays
5.2.2 Definite-time/current or definite-time relays
5.2.3 Inverse-time relays
5.3 Setting overcurrent relays
5.3.1 Setting instantaneous units
5.4.3 Pick-up values
5.5 Co-ordination across Dy transformers
5.6 Co-ordination with fuses
5.7 Co-ordination of negative-sequence units
5.8 Overcurrent relays with voltage control
5.9 Setting overcurrent relays using software techniques
5.10 Use of digital logic in numerical relaying
5.10.1 General
5.10.2 Principles of digital logic
5.10.3 Logic schemes
5.11 Adaptive protection with group settings change
5.12 Exercises
Fuses, reclosers and sectionalisers
6.1 Equipment
6.1.1 Reclosers
6.1.2 Sectionalisers
6.1.3 Fuses
6.2.1 Fuse-fuse co-ordination
6.2.2 Recloser-fuse co-ordination
6.2.3 Recloser-recloser co-ordination
6.2.4 Recloser-relay co-ordination
6.2.5 Recloser-sectionaliser co-ordination
6.2.6 Recloser-sectionaliser-fuse co-ordination
Directional overcurrent relays
7.1 Construction
7.2 Principle of operation
7.3 Relay connections
7.3.1 30◦ connection (0◦ AMT)
7.3.2 60◦ connection (0◦ AMT)
7.3.3 90◦ connection (30◦ AMT)
7.3.4 90◦ connection (45◦ AMT)
7.4 Directional earth-fault relays
7.5 Co-ordination of instantaneous units
7.6 Setting of time-delay directional overcurrent units
7.6.1 Pick-up setting
7.6.2 Time dial setting
7.7 Exercises
Differential protection
8.1 General
8.2 Classification of differential protection
8.3 Transformer differential protection
8.3.1 Basic considerations
8.3.2 Selection and connection of CTs
8.5 Line differential protection
8.6 Busbar differential protection
8.6.1 Differential system with multiple restraint
8.6.2 High impedance differential system
8.7 Exercises
Distance protection
9.1 General
9.2 Types of distance relays
9.2.1 Impedance relay
9.2.2 Directional relay
9.2.3 Reactance relay
9.2.4 Mho relay
9.2.5 Completely polarised mho relay
9.2.6 Relays with lens characteristics
9.2.7 Relays with polygonal characteristics
9.2.8 Relays with combined characteristics
9.3 Setting the reach and operating time of distance relays
9.4 The effect of infeeds on distance relays
9.5 The effect of arc resistance on distance protection
9.6 Residual compensation
9.7 Impedances seen by distance relays
9.7.1 Phase units
9.7.2 Earth-fault units
9.8 Power system oscillations
9.9 The effective cover of distance relays
9.10 Maximum load check
9.11 Drawing relay settings
9.14.1 Tee connection with infeeds at two terminals
9.14.2 Tee connection with infeeds at all three terminals
9.16 Exercises
Protection of industrial systems
10.1 Protection devices
10.1.1 Overcurrent relays
10.1.3 Combined thermal relay contactor and fuse
10.2.1 Thermal relays
10.2.2 Low voltage breakers
Industrial plant load shedding
11.1 Power system operation after loss of generation
11.2 Design of an automatic load shedding system
11.2.1 Simple machine model
11.3 Criteria for setting frequency relays
11.3.1 Operating times
11.3.2 Determination of the frequency variation
11.4.1 Calculation of overload
11.4.2 Load to be shed
11.4.3 Frequency levels
11.4.4 Load shedding stages
11.4.5 Determination of the frequency relay settings
11.4.6 Verification of operation
Protection schemes and substation design diagrams
12.1 Protection schemes
12.1.1 Generator protection
12.1.2 Motor protection
12.1.3 Transformer protection
12.1.4 Line protection
12.2 Substation design diagrams
12.2.1 Single-line diagrams
12.2.2 Substation layout diagrams
12.2.3 Diagrams of AC connections
12.2.4 Diagrams of DC connections
12.2.5 Wiring diagrams
12.2.6 Logic diagrams
12.2.7 Cabling lists
Processing alarms
13.1 General
13.2 Alarm processing methods
13.3 Expert systems
13.4 Equivalent alarms
13.5 Rules
13.6 Finger printing approach
13.7 Hypothesis approach
Installation, testing and maintenance of protection systems
14.1 Installation of protection equipment
14.2 Testing protection schemes
14.2.1 Factory tests
14.2.2 Precommissioning tests
14.2.3 Periodic maintenance
14.3 Commissioning numerical protection
14.3.1 Setting the parameters
14.3.2 Performance tests
Bibliography
Index
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49763594-VTZJ1Rw6

49763594-VTZJ1Rw6

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Published by Abhishek Chandel

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Published by: Abhishek Chandel on Oct 21, 2011
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07/28/2012

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