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Lie Groups

Lie Groups

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Topological and Lie Groups
Elisha Peterson
November 6, 2003
Contents
1 Getting Oriented
2
2 Topological Groups
2
2.1 De\ufb01nitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2.2 GroupActions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
3 Lie Groups: Examples and Basic Constructions
3

3.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3.2 GeometricExamples. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3.3 Lie Subgroups, Quotient Groups, and Covering Groups. . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3.4 The Classical Lie Groups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3.5 HomogeneousSpaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

4 Lie Groups and Lie Algebras
5

4.1 LieAlgebras. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 4.2 The Bracket Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 4.3 Matching Lie Groups to Lie Algebras. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4.4 The Exponential Map. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4.5 The Classi\ufb01cation of Lie Algebras. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

5 Representations of Lie Groups; the Peter-Weyl Theorem
7
5.1 FourierSeries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
5.2 The Peter-Weyl Theorem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
6 The Road Ahead
7
1
1 Getting Oriented

The study of topological/Lie groups is all about combining two very di\ufb00erent structures: a topological (for topological groups) or a di\ufb00erential (for Lie groups) structure and a group structure. The interplay between these two structures produces a strikingly rich theory, and involves a good deal of analysis, algebra, and geometry.

Geometry is most important when trying to write down the necessary conditions for a Lie group to have subgroups, factor groups, and so on. Algebra comes into play when considering the tangent space of a Lie group, which has the structure of aLie algebra. Surprisingly, up to a few small conditions, Lie algebras are in direct correspondence with Lie groups. There is also a foundational theory allowing the complete classi\ufb01cation of almost all Lie algebras.

One example of a Lie group is the circle (viewed as a subset of the complex plane, it is a group under multiplication); the sphere in general is also a Lie group. The most common ones are, however, matrix groups, which can be given a natural di\ufb00erentiable structure (viewingMn(R) as a subset ofRn2

for example). These are of primary importance in the
theory, since every Lie group/Lie algebra is in fact isomorphic to a matrix group/algebra.

Beyond the basic Lie theory isrepresentation theory, which deals with the homomor- phisms of Lie groups/algebras into matrix groups. It turns out that the trace of this map, which is then a function from the Lie group/algebra toR orC, is pretty much all that is necessary to classify the representation.

In the following, we will look at the relationship between Lie groups and Lie algebras, at the Peter-Weyl Theorem (generalizing Fourier analysis), and at the classi\ufb01cation of Lie algebras.

2 TopologicalGroups
2.1 De\ufb01nitions

A topological group combines the ideas of a topological space and a group, and so can be considered either as a group whose operations are continuous or a topological space with a group structure:

Topological Group:a Hausdor\ufb00 topological spaceG which also has a group struc-
tureG such that multiplication and inversion are continuous.
The de\ufb01nition also extends to allow subgroups and homomorphisms of topological groups,
with the added condition of continuity.
The mapsG\u2192 G given byh\ue000\u2192 ghg\u22121 andh\ue000\u2192 h\u22121, as well as theleft/right translation
mapsLg(h) = ghand Rg(h) = hgare homeomorphisms. So, by applying a translation we

see that neighborhoods of a given point act like neighborhoods of the identitye. In fact, we can even work withsymmetric subsets (A\u2282 G withA =A\u22121), since these form a neighborhood basis ofe. This fact simpli\ufb01es many proofs.

If a setH is a (normal) subgroup ofG then its closure\u00af
His also a (normal) subgroup.
IfH is normal, the factor groupG/H will be a Hausdor\ufb00 space, with continuous projection
map\u03c0 :G\u2192 G/H. Moreover, with the quotient topologyG/\u00af
His also a topological group.
Under certain circumstances, it is also true that the universal cover of a topological group
can be given a group structure. These facts will carry over to the study of Lie groups.
2.2 GroupActions
A group action on a spaceX is essentially a group of mapsX\u2192 X:
Group Action:a topological groupG acts on a spaceX if there is a continuous
mapG\u00d7 X\u2192 X with (gh)(x) =g(h(x)) ande(x) =x.
2
A pointx\u2208 X hasorbitG(x) ={g(x)|g \u2208G}, andisotropy/stability groupGx ={g \u2208
G|g(x) = x}. An action istransitive if there is only one orbit, ande\ufb00ective if the only
g\u2208 G\ufb01xing all points in Xis the identity. For example, if a group acts on itself, then at the

identitye we haveG(e) =G =Ge. Moreover, the action is both transitive and e\ufb00ective. If a compact topological groupG acts on a Hausdor\ufb00 spaceX, then the mapG/Gx\u2192 G(x) withgGx\ue000\u2192 g(x), is a homeomorphism.

One important example of a group action is the fundamental group acting on a covering
spacep :X\u2192 Y . Themonodromy action is de\ufb01ned as the action of\u03c01(Y, y0) on the \ufb01ber
p\u22121(y0). It is transitive, and gives a lot of information about the fundamental groups of

covering spaces. We can also consider thegroup of deck transformations \u2206, that is the group of mapsD :X\u2192 X withp\u25e6 D =p. If the action is transitive, the covering space is said to beregular and we have an isomorphism \u2206\u2248\u03c01(Y, y0)/p#\u03c01(X, x0). Alternately, one can obtain a regular covering mapp :X\u2192 X/G from a groupG acting onX if the action isproperly discontinuous, that is every point ofX has some neighborhoodU with

g(U) intersecting Uonly for g= e.
Another example is a\ufb02ow on a manifoldM , which is just a smooth actionR\u00d7M \u2192M .
A \ufb02ow induces a vector \ufb01eld onM uniquely, and all vector \ufb01elds induce a \ufb02ow.
3 Lie Groups: Examples and Basic Constructions
3.1 Introduction

The set of isometries of a Riemannian manifold are almost always a very interesting con- struction. They give insight into the structure of the manifold, in a sense by identifying its \u2018symmetries.\u2019 The set of isometries has two important properties: it forms a group un- der composition, and also has a di\ufb00erentiable structure. These are actually the de\ufb01ning properties of a Lie group:

Lie Group:a topological group with a di\ufb00erentiable structure.

Therefore, a Lie group is a set with compatible group and di\ufb00erentiable manifold structures. This simple de\ufb01nition allows room for Lie groups to be studied as geometric/algebraic entities of their own in addition to their initial purpose as geometric tools for studying manifolds.

Just as Lie groups can be used to study manifolds, sorepresentation theory can be used to study Lie groups. Arepresentation of a Lie groupG is basically just a homomorphism fromG into another group, usually a group of matrices. Matrix groups themselves are of vital importance to Lie theory: fromthe algebraic point of view, Lie groups can be thought of as something slightly more general than matrix groups, as every matrix group is a Lie group. The simplest and most commonly arising Lie groups, usually called the \u201cclassical Lie groups,\u201d are all matrix groups, although they do have a geometric interpretation.

3.2 GeometricExamples

We will detail many common examples of Lie groups, including the classical Lie groups, in this section. As a \ufb01rst example, however, we have all \ufb01nite groups, which are actually 0-dimensional compact Lie groups.

Following the geometric point of view, our \ufb01rst example of a Lie group is the translations along a line. As mapsf :R\u2192 R we have the group{f (x) =x +a :a\u2208R}. Thus, both the di\ufb00erential and group structure is that ofR itself. Generalizing, we see thatRn is always a Lie group. Closely related is the group ofisometries ofR: an isometry is just a translation or a re\ufb02ection and translation, so the group is just two copies ofR, orR\u00d7 Z2. Indeed, a Lie group need not be connected. The corresponding groups for the circle are the rotations (forming a groupS1) and the isometries (formingS1\u00d7Z2). This is actually theorthogonal

groupO(2) consisting of 2\u00d7 2 orthogonal matrices, since such matrices preserve the unit
3

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